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PG-HQ's Annotated 4th Edition Rules

1.0 Introduction

Panzer Grenadier is a series of games simulating tactical combat during World War II. Each game in the series includes many scenarios, allowing players to simulate a number of company, battalion, and regimental-level actions.

Each section of the rules is numbered, and paragraphs within each section that discuss important concepts are identified by a second number, like this: 2.2. When that section includes subsections, these are identified like this: 2.24. When the rules refer to another, related paragraph, they include that paragraph's number parenthetically, like this: (2.2). This helps you find that rule for reference.

This rules set updates, clarifies, and supersedes all previous rules. A number of rules concerning play and terrain previously published only in games as special rules are standardized here. If there is a conflict between these rules and those found in previously published games, these rules take precedence. However, if a scenario rule in question changes a basic rule to better simulate the unit capabilities or scenario conditions, then it should be played as written. For example, light and heavy woods are defined here, and supersede those published in games like Elsenborn Ridge. Another example is the M18 Hellcat that is allowed in some games to move and fire in the same turn.

1.1 Summary of Concepts

Here's a quick overview of the game to get you started. Refer to the other rules sections for full details.

Playing Pieces: Each combat unit piece represents a platoon of infantry or tanks (30 to 50 men or four to five tanks) or a battery of guns (two to four guns). There are also non-combat units like trucks and wagons for transporting combat units.

Leaders: Leaders are the most important pieces in the game. A leader piece shows his rank, and has his morale printed large in the center. At bottom left is the bonus he adds to the direct fire strength of a friendly unit in his hex, and at the bottom right is the bonus he adds to the morale of all friendly units in his hex and adjacent hexes. Tanks have their own leaders, which do not appear as separate pieces - players assign tank leaders secretly to individual tank units.

Fire Values: Each combat unit has one or more fire values printed on its playing piece. Each fire value appears as two numbers separated by a dash. The number before the dash is its fire strength, and the number after the dash is its range. Black numbers are direct fire values, white numbers are bombardment fire values, and red numbers on a yellow background are anti-tank fire values. (In some games the color schemes are slightly different, and are explained in that game's special rules - but it's pretty easy to figure out). Direct and bombardment fire can harm personnel units. Anti-tank fire can harm vehicles. Flamethrower units' direct fire is in red.

Movement Allowance: A unit's movement allowance is printed in the top right corner. This is the number of movement points (MPs) it can spend to move each turn. It costs different numbers of MPs to move into hexes with different types of terrain - see the Terrain Effects Chart for details. Leaders normally have a movement allowance of four.

Initiative: At the start of each turn, each player rolls one die and adds his side's current initiative bonus (listed in the scenario rules) to the result. Whoever wins the roll (has the higher total) takes the first action segment, and may be allowed to undertake more than one before his opponent may undertake one.

Action Segments: In an action segment, a player can activate one unit, or a stack of units, or a leader and all units of his type (regular or tank) in his hex and all adjacent hexes,or a string of adjacent leaders in descending rank order (plus all units with or adjacent to those leaders). Activated units may either move or fire in their action segment.

Moving: Units activated by a leader can move closer to enemy units that could fire on them with a type of fire that could hurt them, and can enter the same hex with enemy units if they start their activation adjacent to the enemy units. Units not activated by leaders can move, but they can't move closer to enemy units that could hurt them.

Spotting: Units can fire at enemy units within range which they can spot themselves. Units using bombardment fire don't have to spot enemy units themselves: leaders may spot for them, but other units may not. Units in clear terrain can be spotted by enemy units up to 12 hexes away. Units in limiting terrain (8.2) can only be spotted by enemy units a set number of hexes away or closer (between one and five, see TEC). Higher land elevations block the line of sight (LOS), and some limiting terrain is tall enough to block it as well (8.3).

Combining Fire: Units stacked together in the same hex may add their direct or bombardment fire strength together in the same attack. Units in adjacent hexes can only do this if activated by a leader whose piece includes a combat bonus. Units may not combine for antitank fire.

Direct and Bombardment Fire: The firing player indicates the target hex, adds up the fire strength of the firing units, looks at the fire table corresponding to the type of fire used, and finds the column whose heading equals or doesn't exceed the total fire strength of the firing units. He increases or decreases the column used based on the column modifiers listed on the table, and rolls two dice. He cross-references the die roll result with the table column to determine the combat result.

Anti-Tank Fire: Only one unit at a time can fire at enemy vehicles with Anti-Tank Fire (they can't combine fire). The firing player rolls two dice, adds the Anti-Tank Fire strength of the firing unit to the result, subtracts the armor value of the target vehicle (motorized vehicles that have no armor rating, like trucks and jeeps, are considered to have an armor value of -1), and adds or subtracts any applicable die roll modifiers listed on the Anti-Tank Fire table. If the modified result is 10 or more, the vehicle takes damage or is eliminated (along with any other units or leaders it's transporting).

Assault: Units starting their activation adjacent to enemy units can move into the enemy units' hex if activated by a leader. This initiates an assault, in which both sides fire with all their units in the hex. Each player adds up the direct fire strengths of his units in the hex, finds the correct column, adds any column modifiers and rolls two dice for the results. Results affect all enemy units in the hex.

Damage: Combat results can range from enemy units flipping to their half-strength side or being eliminated, to having to make morale checks, to no effect at all.

Morale Checks: Required whenever a unit or leader suffers a combat result. To conduct a morale check, roll two dice for the unit or leader and compare the result to its morale (adding any morale bonus from a friendly leader in the same or an adjacent hex). If the result is LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO the modified morale, the unit or leader is not affected. If it's GREATER THAN the modified morale, the unit or leader is either disrupted or demoralized. Disrupted units and leaders move slowly and fight at half-strength. Demoralized units and leaders can do very little except try to recover. Units which become disrupted or demoralized can try to recover back to good-order morale on future turns. Demoralized units which fail to recover morale flee from enemies that can hurt them.

Winning the Game: Each scenario designates the number of game turns. If the victory conditions for one or both sides are completed before the full number of turns has been played, and further play cannot bring about a different result, then the battle ends (unless you want to play longer!). Otherwise, the game ends and the level of victory is determined when the last turn is completed.

1.2 Definitions

Action Segment: The activation of a unit, leader, or stack of units, or a group of units and subordinate leaders under the direction of a single senior leader. Activated units may perform either fire or movement (morale recovery is a move action and assault is a fire action) (3.13).

Active Player and Units: The player conducting the current action segment is the Active Player, and any units he takes actions with in the current action segment are Active Units.

Anti-Tank (AT) Fire: Fire from an individual unit with an Anti-Tank Fire value, against an individual enemy vehicle unit. Some aircraft and personnel units may perform a special Anti-Tank Fire (see 11.4 and 11.5).

Armor Value: A vehicle's ability to resist enemy Anti-Tank Fire. A unit's armor value is printed in the lower right corner of the unit's playing piece in yellow on a burgundy field; higher numbers are better. Motorized vehicles without a printed armor value have an armor value of -1 (usually trucks and jeeps).

Armored Fighting Vehicle (AFV): Any unit with a printed armor defense value (even a value of 0). This includes self-propelled artillery, armored cars, special armored engineering vehicles, armored personnel carriers, and other similar vehicles. A tank leader may activate any of these.

Armored Personnel Carrier (APC): Open-top AFVs whose primary purpose is to transport infantry on the battlefield, but also serve a secondary function as combat units since they are armed. They stack like transports (three APCs and/ or other transports, along with their three loaded weapon or foot units, can stack in a hex along with up to three non-APC combat units that are not loaded for a total of nine units in the hex). APCs can be activated by both regular leaders and tank leaders. Each scenario book defines which units are APCs (usually halftracks and similar vehicles like the British Bren carrier).

Assault: Close combat between opposing units occupying the same hex.

Assault Hex: A hex containing both friendly and enemy combat units.

Bombardment Fire (BF): Fire from weapons using arcing fire, like mortars, rockets, and most artillery pieces; against targets that the firing unit may or may not see itself. Bombardment fire affects the entire target hex, which must be spotted (8.0) by the firing unit or a friendly leader. Often called indirect fire elsewhere.

Closed-Top AFV: Any AFV which is not an APC or open-top AFV as defined in the scenario book.

Column and Die Roll Modifiers: Some conditions change the column used on the Direct Fire, Bombardment, or Assault table, or increase or decrease the die roll result on the Anti-Tank Fire table. To apply a column modifier, go up or down a number of columns equal to the modifier (+2 = move two columns to the right on the table). To modify a die roll, add or subtract the modifier to/from the result. See the fire tables for the column or die roll modifiers that apply to each type of fire.

Combat Result: A result on the Direct Fire, Anti-Tank, Bombardment, or Assault table that forces target unit(s) and leader(s) to make morale checks and/or take step losses. See the appropriate chart for possible results.

Combat Units: Units possessing a direct fire, bombardment fire or anti-tank fire value. Unarmed transports and leaders are not combat units.

Control: A hex is controlled by the player whose undemoralized combat unit was the last one to occupy the hex exclusively. If one or more units of both sides currently occupy the same hex, then neither side controls the hex. In scenarios where one side sets its units up on the board and the other side's units enter from one or more board edges at game start, all hexes on the board begin play under the control of the side that sets up on the board. In scenarios where both sides set units up on the board at game start, each hex begins play under the control of whichever side sets up units in or closer to it (unless scenario rules say otherwise). Hexes which begin play equidistant from units of both sides start under the control of the player who set up first, per scenario instructions. In scenarios where no units set up on the board at the start of the game (both sides' units enter during play), no hexes begin play under either side's control and remain uncontrolled until physically occupied by at least one undemoralized combat unit of one side or the other.

Demoralized: A demoralized unit or leader may not attack or take any action except to try to recover because its personnel have lost their will to fight. Units and leaders become demoralized as a result of combat, or may voluntarily become demoralized during their activation if desired (so that a leader may accompany a fleeing demoralized unit; see 6.53). Demoralized units must attempt to recover their morale on their turn, and a player cannot pass on taking an activation while he still has unactivated demoralized units in play.

Direct Fire (DF): Fire directed at an entire hex spotted by the firing unit.

Disrupted: A disrupted unit's personnel are dispersed, and its movement and firepower values are reduced. A disrupted leader's movement is reduced, and may only affect units with which he is stacked (3.12, 6.54).

Fire Values: Two numbers on a playing piece, separated by a dash. The number before the dash is the unit's fire strength, the number after the dash is its fire range. Higher numbers are better. Direct fire values are black, bombardment fire values are white, and Anti-Tank Fire values are red on a yellow background. More than one type of fire value can appear on a playing piece.

Foot: A type of movement involving the walking/running of humans and animals rather than the use of vehicles; includes bicycle units and cavalry.

Fractions: Many game functions require that numbers be halved or quartered. All fractions are rounded up by individual unit. For example, 2-1/2 becomes 3, as does 2-1/4.

Friendly: Units of the same side. For example, all German units are friendly to all other German units, whether they actually like each other or not.

Good Order: A unit or leader which is neither disrupted nor demoralized. Units usually start each scenario in good order, but may become Disrupted or Demoralized and recover back to good order throughout play.

Inactive Player and Units: The player not conducting the current action segment is the Inactive Player, and his units are all Inactive Units, though they may be able to conduct Opportunity Fire (13.0).

Initiative: Initiative indicates a side's readiness to act. The side with higher initiative is more likely to act first. Initiative can be reduced by combat losses (3.0, Step A).

Leaders: Individuals who activate and direct other units. Each leader piece has two sides, each of which represents a different leader. Each leader's rank, morale, combat bonus and morale bonus are on his playing piece. See 6.0 for leader specifics including movement allowance.

Movement Type: Units move as one of six types: Mechanized, Motorized, Towed, Foot (5.1), Air, and Naval.

Movement Allowance: The maximum distance the unit may move in an action segment, measured in movement points (MPs). A unit's movement allowance is printed in the upper right corner. A unit with a "T" in the upper right corner on its limbered side (5.62) must be towed to move.

Night Turn: Any turn in which darkness reduces spotting range in all terrain to one or two hexes (see 8.12). On night turns units have movement restrictions (5.5) and suffer a -1 column modifier on the Direct, Bombardment, and Anti-Tank Fire Tables.

Open-Top AFV: An AFV with no armor on top, making it vulnerable to step losses from direct and bombardment fire. This includes all APCs, plus other units defined in the scenario book of each series game.

Opportunity Fire: Inactive units firing on a single moving active unit. Since units move individually, only one unit at a time (and any leader(s) moving with it) may be affected by opportunity fire.

Personnel Unit: A generic term encompassing units that are composed primarily of manpower and man-powered vehicles like bicycles, as opposed to armored vehicles or transports. Examples include (but are not limited to) Motorcycles (MTC), mortars, anti-tank rifles (ATR), infantry (INF), marines (MAR), paratroopers (PARA), cavalry (CAV), heavy machine guns (HMG), and engineers (ENG).

Prime Mover: A type of heavy transport designated in scenario special rules that is only used to tow artillery and other weapons units.

Range: The distance in hexes over which a unit may project its fire values.

Rank: The measure of a leader's seniority. From lowest to highest, they are: Corporal (CPL), Sergeant (SGT), Lieutenant (LT), Captain (CPT), Major (MAJ), Lt. Colonel (LTC), Colonel (COL), Brigadier General (BGEN), Major General (MGEN), Lieutenant General (LGEN), and General (GEN). Certain games in the series include non-standard rank designations, such as Italian, Waffen SS, Finnish or Hungarian leaders. See each game's special rules.

Reconnaissance (Recce): Includes two types: combat AFVs (includes armored cars) that are more lightly armored than tanks, generally faster, and used in a reconnaissance and screening role; and Intelligence and Reconnaissance (I&R or RCN) units that act in most cases like other foot. The AFVs may not transport other units, and use motorized or mechanized movement rates depending on type. Both types stack as other combat units. Both types have special spotting abilities (8.23).

Safe Hex: A town, woods or other hex where a unit cannot be spotted and/or fired on by enemy units with Direct or Anti-Tank Fire (whichever fire type could hurt it), nor can it be assaulted by enemy units. Demoralized units which fail to recover morale must flee toward the closest safe hex (14.31), or remain in the safe hex if they start their activation there (14.32).

Spotting: The act of visually sighting enemy units. All units can spot enemy units in the same or adjacent hexes. Beyond this, spotting range depends on terrain, weather, and other factors (8.1). Only leaders can spot for units using Bombardment fire against targets they cannot see themselves.

Steps: Most combat units have two strength levels. Each strength level is called a "step." Units can lose steps in many ways, usually in combat. When a unit loses a step, flip its piece to its reduced side or remove it from the board if it has only one step or is already on its reduced side. Unless scenario instructions say otherwise, set units up at full strength.

Strongpoint: Non-mobile personnel unit representing an improved fighting position. Sometimes referred to as a casemate or casement.

Tank: Fully armored AFVs with a printed armor value, anti-tank fire, and usually direct fire as well. They stack like other combat units and use Mechanized movement. Many scenarios use eliminated tank steps to adjust initiative as well as determine victory, and such step losses would include all units described above with the attendant armor symbol on the unit. So units that would be excluded would be self-propelled artillery, reconnaissance, and APCs; while most tank destroyers would count, along with engineering vehicles like the British Crab or Crocodile.

Transport Units: Vehicles used to transport personnel units and leaders, or tow crew-served weapons. This includes wagons, trucks, prime movers, and sledges. APCs are combat units which can act as transports as well (4.3).

Weapon Units: Anti-tank, artillery, or anti-aircraft units, most of which need to be towed by a transport unit to move (5.6).

2.0 Components
2.1 Playing Pieces

Most of the playing pieces represent military units that took part in actions covered by the game series. Others are markers which represent fortifications, smoke and minefields, indicate morale status, or show that units have moved or fired this turn.

2.2 Game Boards

The boards are divided into hexagons (called hexes) which are used like squares on a chessboard. Each hex is numbered to aid in setting up pieces. The map also shows important terrain features. The Terrain Effects Chart (TEC) shows how terrain affects movement and combat. Half-hexes on the board edges may be used (they are "playable"). Hexes on two boards are considered to be on both boards for set up and victory purposes.

2.3 Scenarios

Scenario set up instructions (in the scenario books) list the units of both sides, where they are set up, the game boards used and their orientations, historical background, victory conditions, and special rules for scenarios or games.

2.4 Game Scale

Each turn represents fifteen minutes of real time. Each hex is 200 meters (200m) across. Units represent infantry platoons (15-40 men), crew-served weapon batteries and platoons (16-28 men and two to four weapons) and vehicle platoons (three to five vehicles). Leaders represent individuals, and aircraft represent 3 to 12 aircraft.

3.0 Sequence of Play

After selecting a scenario, players set up their units per the scenario instructions. Each player undertakes "action" in a varying number of "action segments." Each turn consists of three phases that must be conducted in this order:

A) Initiative Determination Phase.

Each player rolls one die and adds his or her current Initiative (found in the scenario instructions) to the result. The player with the higher total wins the initiative. Roll again in the event of a tie (add the current Initiative to this result as well).

Subtract the losing player's total from the winner's total and divide the difference by two, rounding fractions up. This is the number of action segments (3.1) the winning player conducts before the losing player can take any actions (round 1/2 up to 1).

Example: Player A (Initiative 3) rolls a 5 for a total of 8. Player B (Initiative 2) rolls a 3 for a total of 5. Player A wins initiative by 3 (divided by 2 = 1.5 rounded up to 2), and can take two action segments before Player B takes one.

A player's initiative normally falls when his units take a certain number of step losses, but it can never go below zero.

B) Action Phase.

The player who won initiative conducts the number of action segments (3.1) determined in the Initiative Determination Phase. Then the other player conducts one action segment. Then players alternate, conducting one action segment each for as long as it takes to complete the turn. Players may pass and not activate any units in a segment if desired. If one player passes and the other passes immediately afterward, the turn ends. A player cannot pass if he has demoralized, unactivated leaders or units on the board. He must use his action segment to attempt to recover morale (14.4) for at least one demoralized leader or unit. If the optional Fog of War rules are used, the roll is made at the end of the next activation after both players have completed at least three activations.

C) Marker Removal Phase.

Remove all Moved/Fired markers from the board as well as Smoke and Illumination markers (see Optional Rules). If the optional Drumfire rules are used, remove Spotted markers indicating the presence of drumfire.

3.1 Action Segments

An action segment consists of any one of the following:

  • A single unit or leader self-activating;
  • Some or all units stacked together in the same hex activating at once, with or without leaders. If any regular leaders or tank leaders are in the stack, they may activate and direct the units in the stack for movement and combat purposes, plus units and subordinate leaders in adjacent hexes;
  • A single leader activating and directing all units in his hex plus the six hexes adjacent to him;
  • A single leader activating and directing a chain of units and lower-ranking leaders in several hexes through Subordinate Activation (3.2).
3.11 Individual Units and Stacks

An individual unit may activate with or without the assistance of a leader. An individual stack (everything that's stacked together in one hex) may also activate with or without the assistance of a leader, no matter what types of units are in the stack. Units that activate without leaders can't move closer to enemy units that can harm them with Direct or AT fire (5.4).

If a leader is in a stack that activates, then he can activate himself, all units of his type (either AFV or non-AFV), and all subordinate leaders in the stack and all six adjacent hexes for movement and combat purposes. When a stack of infantry and armor activate it counts as one activation. Units activated by a leader can take all actions without restriction (3.13), including moving closer to enemy units that could harm them (5.4), but they do not have to move into the same hexes as the activating leader.

Previously activated unit(s) do not affect any unactivated units in the same hex. It is not necessary to activate all units in a stack during an activation.

3.12 Leaders and Activation

A good-order leader may (but is not required to) activate units and lower-ranking leaders in his hex plus all six hexes adjacent to him. A disrupted leader may only activate units and lower-ranking leaders in his own hex. A demoralized leader may not activate anybody.

A leader may activate units and subordinate leaders regardless of whether he activates on his own or as part of a stack.

A leader may only activate units at the beginning of his activation (he may not move and then activate units he was not with or adjacent to before moving).

Unless noted in the game or scenario's special rules, leaders may activate units of other branches unit of the same country's military (for example, a Soviet Guards leader may activate an RKKA unit), but not those of other nations, even if allied.

3.13 Unit Actions

The activated unit, leader or group performs actions in no specific order, but all actions must be designated before the first is performed. Actions are either Movement or Fire. Players need not pre-designate directions or targets - they just state which units will move and which will fire this action segment.

"Movement" includes moving (5.0), digging in (16.2), limbering/unlimbering (5.63) or attempting to recover morale (14.4). "Fire" includes direct fire (10.0), bombardment (9.0), anti-tank fire (11.0) and assault (12.0, even though initiating or joining an assault involves moving into the assault hex).

Once units are done moving and firing, mark them with Moved/Fired markers. Units marked with Moved/Fired markers may not activate again in the current turn except through Random Events (see Optional Rules).

3.14 Off-Map Artillery and Air Support

Firing one or more off-map artillery increments (9.2) or attacking with aircraft units (15.1) constitutes a complete action segment. No units on the map may activate in the same action segment when off-map artillery fires or air units attack.

3.15 Opportunity Fire

The inactive player may be able to conduct Opportunity Fire (13.0) against moving active units during the active player's action segment.

3.2 Subordinate Activation

An activating leader may, if desired, activate other, lower-ranking leaders (but NOT leaders of the same or higher ranks) in his hex and the six hexes adjacent to him. Those leaders may in turn activate units in their hexes and adjacent hexes, plus leaders in those hexes who are of lower rank. This all happens in the same action segment, and all leaders and units so activated may move and fire normally.

Thus an activated MAJ can activate a LT in an adjacent hex, and the LT can activate a SGT in a third hex adjacent to the LT. If planned carefully, leaders and units spread over a large front may all be activated in the same activation segment, due to the activation of a single senior commander.

Tank Leaders (3.3) have no rank, so they cannot activate other leaders (including other tank leaders) through subordinate activation. So, when a tank leader activates, only the AFVs in his hex and the six adjacent hexes may activate (3.31).

3.3 AFV Activation

Armored Fighting Vehicles (AFVs, 1.2) have their own leaders, called Tank Leaders. Tank Leaders do not appear as separate pieces like regular leaders - players assign tank leaders secretly to individual tank units (see 6.8).

3.31 Tank Leader Abilities

Tank leaders activate and direct AFVs, just like regular leaders activate and direct non-AFV units. However, tank leaders have no rank, so they can't activate other tank leaders or regular leaders through Subordinate Activation (3.2). Each tank leader may activate all AFVs in his hex plus the six hexes adjacent to him (whether or not those other AFVs contain tank leaders). Tank leaders can direct AFVs to perform all types of actions (3.13).

3.32 Tank Leader Limitations

Tank leaders may not activate or direct non-AFV units or regular leaders. However, any non-AFV units or regular leaders stacked in the tank leader's hex can activate at the same time as the tank leader if the stack self-activates (3.11, 5.45).

3.33 Regular Leader Limitations

Regular leaders can't activate or direct tanks (1.2), reconnaissance vehicles (armored cars) (1.2), or tank leaders. However, they can activate APCs (loaded or not), self-propelled artillery, and engineering vehicles even if they are AFVs. Any AFVs and Tank Leaders stacked in the regular leader's hex can activate simultaneously with him if the stack self-activates (3.11, 5.45).

3.34 APCs

APCs are hybrid AFV/Transport units, and can be activated by all friendly regular leaders and tank leaders, whether loaded with personnel units or not.

4.0 Stacking

More than one friendly unit may occupy the same hex. This is called "stacking."

4.1 Limits

The maximum number of units that may occupy any hex is:

  • Three combat units, PLUS
  • Three transports (including APCs) possibly loaded with up to three combat units, PLUS
  • Any number of leaders

Stacking restrictions apply at all times. Units may not enter a hex if doing so would cause the units there to exceed stacking limits. If at any time the stacking limit is exceeded, all units in the offending stack are immediately marked as Disrupted (if not already), and the opposing player moves sufficient overstacked units to adjacent hexes to bring the hex within the stacking limit. If there are no suitable adjacent hexes to displace the overstacked units to (for example, the hex is surrounded by enemy units), then the owning player chooses which units to eliminate to satisfy the stacking limits.

In an assault hex, both sides may have up to three combat units plus three loaded transports (including APCs) and an unlimited number of leaders, for a total of up to eighteen units (plus leaders) in the hex.

4.2 Transport Units and Leaders

APCs, unarmed transports and leaders do not count for stacking in determining column modifiers in combat (4.4).

4.3 Armored Personnel Carriers (APCs)

APCs are open-top AFVs which also act as transports. Their armor value gives them (and any units they are transporting) immunity to most results on the Direct and Bombardment fire tables. They are combat units, but they stack as transports, meaning that up to three APCs and/or unarmed transports (plus loaded units) may stack in a hex with up to three friendly non-APC combat units. They can be activated by all friendly regular leaders AND tank leaders.

4.4 Column Modifiers

A hex containing three combat units suffers a +1 column modifier on the Direct and Bombardment Fire tables. Leaders, APCs, and unarmed transports do not count toward this penalty.

Example: A hex with two INF units and a tank suffers a +1 column modifier when attacked on the Direct or Bombardment fire table. So does a hex with three INF units. A hex with three APCs or trucks plus three leaders does NOT suffer a +1 column modifier in combat.

4.5 Effects on Movement

Moving combat units (except APCs) may not enter a hex containing three friendly non-APC combat units. Moving transports (including APCs) may not enter a hex containing three friendly transports. Leaders have no such restrictions.

5.0 Movement

The active player moves his or her activated units ONE AT A TIME from hex to adjacent hex. Exceptions: A leader may choose to move with a unit he activates (including fleeing with it if it fails to recover from demoralization,6.53, 14.31, and a unit being transported moves at the same time as the transport unit carrying it (5.6). A leader may ride with non-transport units that have higher movement allowances than the Leader (for example, motorcycle units).

A unit's movement allowance is printed in the upper right corner, except for Leaders, who have a movement allowance of 4, and Cavalry Leaders, who have a movement allowance of 6.

Units spend movement points (MPs) from their movement allowances to enter hexes, paying the costs specified on the TEC. A unit only pays the MP cost for the most expensive terrain in the hex unless the TEC says otherwise, or unless the unit is moving along a road or crossing a bridge (5.2). A unit may not exceed its movement allowance in any action segment unless it moves only one hex. A unit with a movement allowance of at least 1 may always move one hex no matter how much it costs to enter the hex. However, some terrain like rivers may block movement (5.72). Activated units which began the action segment in the same hex do not have to move together.

5.1 Movement Type

Each unit has a movement class. Terrain costs vary by movement class.

  • Mechanized: Tanks, self-propelled artillery, most APCs, and other units using tracked or semi-tracked vehicles. All units with an armor value and a movement allowance (except armored cars) are mechanized.
  • Motorized: Armored cars, trucks, motorcycles, and other units using motor-powered wheeled vehicles (not horses). All vehicle units that are not mechanized are motorized.
  • Towed: Units with no movement allowance, which may only move with the aid of a transport unit. Towed units have a "T" on their reverse, limbered side in place of their movement allowance. A few towed units have a movement allowance of 1 on their limbered side. These may be towed or move on their own using Foot movement when limbered.
  • Foot: Units that move using the human or animal foot. All land units not described above as Mechanized, Motorized, or Towed are Foot units.
  • Naval: Units that move on water. Units that move on water and on land are often described as "amphibious" but treated for game purposes as land or naval vehicles depend-ing on the terrain they occupy. Naval units that are not amphibious may not enter hexes that are part water and part land.
  • Air: Units that move onto and off the map using hexes but are unaffected by terrain for movement since they are above it.
5.2 Roads

To obtain the movement benefit of roads, movement must follow the road across a hexside containing the road, not just into or out of a road hex. Units moving along a road (including bridges) pay the road movement cost on the TEC, not the cost of the terrain in the hex.

Roads do not extend into/through town/village hexes regardless of the board artwork, and so a unit entering a town always pays the town/village movement cost.

5.3 Friendly and Enemy Units in the Same Hex

A unit may not enter a hex occupied by one or more enemy combat units unless it is conducting an Assault (12.0), or Advanced Armor Operations (see Optional Rules).

5.31 Harmless Enemies

A unit may freely enter and exit hexes containing only enemy leaders (see 6.71 for possible leader casualties) and/or unarmed enemy trucks, wagons or sledges. Such enemy transports are eliminated if the moving unit is a combat unit. Unarmed transports can freely enter hexes containing only enemy unarmed transports. They have no effect on each other.

5.32 Assault

Assaulting units may move only a single hex into the adjacent hex occupied by enemy units (Exception: Cavalry Charges, 15.31; Extended Assault and Overrun, see Optional Rules), and must then stop moving and assault the enemy units (12.0). Units that began their activation in the assault hex may leave it, but may only move a single hex when doing so. If no friendly units remain in the assault hex when the unit or units leave, then the enemy units in the exited hex get a "free shot" at all the exiting units on the assault table (12.12). Units exiting an assault hex may not enter another hex containing enemy combat units in the same segment.

5.4 Combat Movement

If a unit is activated by a friendly leader, then it may move closer to enemy units that can spot it, have it within their range, and could obtain a combat result on it through direct fire or anti-tank fire. If the unit is not activated by a friendly leader, then it can't move closer to ANY such enemy units.

"Moving closer" includes moving into an enemy-occupied hex for an assault (12.1). Units may not enter a hex containing enemy combat units unless they are activated by a friendly leader.

These restrictions apply even if the enemy units in question have Moved/Fired markers on them or are in an assault hex (and therefore unable to fire out of the hex). A leader may choose to move with any unit he activates, but is not required to do so.

5.41 Exceptions

Personnel units may move closer to enemy units which only have anti-tank fire values. AFVs may move closer to enemy units with only Direct Fire values despite the small chance of getting a combat result on AFVs. Units do not need leaders to move closer to units which could only obtain a combat result on them with bombardment fire (9.0). Units may not enter the hex of an enemy unit with any kind of fire value unless they're activated by a leader and following all assault rules (12.0).

A unit does not require a leader's presence to enter a hex at an equal or greater distance from a particular enemy unit, or to move closer to enemy units that can't spot it, or to move closer to enemy units through hexes which are outside enemy direct or anti-tank fire range (whichever fire type could hurt it).

Example: A non-leader activated INF unit that is three hexes from an enemy GREN and four hexes from an enemy HMG may NOT move one hex toward the HMG and away from the GREN. The INF can ONLY move such that he maintains his three hexes from the GREN and four from the HMG, or gets further form one or both - never nearer.

5.42 Leader Types

Units must be activated (3.1) by leaders of their own kind to move toward what could hurt them. A regular leader cannot activate AFVs (except for APCs, 5.43), and Tank Leaders (6.8) cannot activate non-AFV units. Regular and tank leaders cannot activate each other, though they may both activate simultaneously if stacked together (3.11). Tank leaders have no rank, so they can't activate each other through subordinate activation (3.2). Only one tank leader may activate per action segment (unless more than one are in a stack that self-activates).

5.43 Armored Personnel Carriers

APCs are both AFV and Transport units. Thus, they can be activated by any type of leader (regular or tank).

5.44 Leader Limitations

Disrupted leaders can only activate units and subordinate leaders in their own hex. Demoralized leaders can't activate anybody. The same applies to tank leaders in disrupted and demoralized tank units.

5.45 AFV and Non-AFV Units Performing Combat Movement Together

If a regular leader and a tank leader are stacked together in a stack that self-activates (3.11), then those leaders may normally activate all AFVs in the stack and adjacent hexes, and all non-AFV units and leaders in the stack, adjacent hexes, and other hexes through subordinate activation (3.2). All such units and leaders can perform move or fire actions (3.11) normally, including moving toward units that could hurt them. This is the only way AFV and non-AFV units may perform combat movement together in the same segment or enter an assault hex together (12.1). If only one type of leader is in a stack that activates, then only units of his type may advance on units that could hurt them. Note that tank leaders cannot use subordinate activation, so in this case he can only activate AFVs in the activated stack plus all six adjacent hexes (3.31). Note also that APCs can be activated by any leader, including those activated by subordinate activation.

Example: A Sergeant, a Tank Leader, an INF unit and an AFV unit in the same hex may all activate at once as a stack. All units in the stack may fire or move normally (including moving closer to enemy units that could hurt them) in the same action segment. If any AFVs, Corporals, and/or non-AFV units are in the six hexes adjacent to the stack, then they may be activated by the leaders in the stack and may all fire or move normally (including Combat Movement) in the same action segment as the stack. So can any APCs and non-AFV units in all hexes adjacent to the Corporal (3.2).

If there was no tank leader in the stack, then the AFV there could still activate as part of the stack, but it could not perform Combat Movement, and the adjacent AFVs could not activate. If there were no regular leader in the stack, then the INF unit there could activate but not perform Combat Movement, and no adjacent non-AFV units or leaders could activate. Note that APCs in the stack and adjacent hexes could all activate and perform combat movement no matter which type of leader is in the stack.

5.5 Night Movement

On night turns, units may not enter hexes that are not friendly-controlled unless they are activated by a leader (5.42).

5.6 Transport

A single good-order transport unit may transport one good-order weapon or personnel unit (except cavalry and motorcycles), PLUS up to three leaders. Once loaded, the transport unit and everything it carries count as one unit for stacking, movement and combat purposes. They all move together as one. When loading or unloading, the transport and everything being loaded or unloaded must be in the same hex. Disrupted and demoralized transports cannot load or transport units, nor can disrupted or demoralized units or leaders load onto a transport.

5.61 Transporting Personnel

A personnel unit (except cavalry and motorcycles) may load onto or unload from a transport unit at a cost of one MP to BOTH units each time the unit loads or unloads. Personnel units may load, be transported, and unload in the same movement phase, but may not enter another hex after being unloaded. A transport that unloads personnel may keep moving if it has MPs remaining after unloading.

5.62 Transporting Weapons

Weapon units have two sides. The front shows the weapon deployed for fire and the reverse shows it prepared to move (limbered). Only units with a movement factor on the front may move without limbering. To be transported, a weapon unit with no movement allowance and a "T" on the reverse side must be on its reverse side.

5.63 Limbering and Unlimbering

A weapon unit may be limbered and loaded (hooked up for towing) at a cost of all the transport and weapon units' MPs. This requires an entire action segment. Thus, a transport unit may not move and load a weapon unit in the same action segment. Unloading costs no MPs to either unit, but unlimbering requires the weapon unit's entire action segment. Thus, a weapon that starts its action segment loaded may unload and unlimber in the same segment, and the transport unit it was loaded on may move or load another unit in the same hex in the same segment as well.

Limbering or unlimbering a mortar unit costs all of that unit's MPs and takes up its entire activation (place a Moved/Fired marker on it immediately after flipping it). A mortar cannot "flip" and move in the same action segment.

Two-sided combat vehicle units like the BM-13 or Portee units have one side that displays the movement allowance, and another that shows a move of 0. These units can limber (flip to their movement side) or unlimber (flip to their move 0 side) for a cost of two MPs, and so may move and unlimber, or limber and move in the same turn. However, such units may never unlimber and fire in the same turn, nor fire and limber.

5.64 Self-Propelled Artillery

Any weapon unit with an armor value is self-propelled and does not need to limber to move. It uses mechanized or motorized movement (depending on its symbol) and may not be transported. Weapon units with a movement allowance but no armor value are personnel units and may be transported (5.61).

5.65 Taking Damage

If a transport unit is fired on, everything it is transporting suffers the same fate as the transport. If a transport must make a morale check due to enemy fire, make one roll for the transport only, adding the morale bonus of any one leader it is carrying or in its hex or an adjacent hex. If the transport becomes disrupted or demoralized or is eliminated, so does everything it's transporting.

While personnel units and leaders are normally immune to anti-tank fire, they are eliminated if a transport carrying them is destroyed by anti-tank fire. Conversely, a personnel unit loaded on an APC is protected by the APC's armor value, and is immune to all results on the direct fire and bombardment table except X, 2X and 3X.

5.66 Forced Unloading

If a transport unit becomes disrupted or demoralized, everything it is transporting is disrupted or demoralized as well and unloads immediately. Weapon and mortar units unload on their limbered sides. If the forced unloading causes a violation of the stacking limit apply the penalties in 4.1.

5.67 Restrictions

Units being transported may not conduct any type of fire. If a transport has a fire value, the transport may fire even if it is loaded. In a hex containing enemy units, a unit being transported may unload as a movement action, but it may not load.

Example: The German player declares that an SPW 251 APC carrying an INF unit will conduct a Fire action, moving into an adjacent hex to initiate an assault. The German player may count the APC's direct fire value in his total assault strength, but not the fire value of the loaded INF unit. The next turn, the APC may declare a movement action and unload its INF unit. Because it was a movement action, neither unit may conduct an assault that turn (though they may defend against enemy assault).

The following limitations apply by transport type unless specified in the scenario:

  • Wagons: no limitation.
  • Prime Movers: any weapon unit; no personnel units may be carried.
  • APCs and Trucks: any personnel unit, and any weapon smaller than 150mm.
  • Jeeps and Kubelwagons: any foot unit, 37mm AT, 2-pounder AT, or 20mm AA weapons (and others as specified in a game's special rules section).
5.7 River Crossings

Bridges and fords help units cross rivers. Bridges are printed on the board, while fords are designated in the scenario instructions. Players entering a river hex with a bridge or ford pay the MP cost listed on the TEC or in the scenario instructions.

Depending on scenario instructions, units may be able to cross rivers at places other than bridges and fords on their own, or they may need the help of an engineer (ENG) unit. No matter the size of the river, any unit that crosses must stop moving once it leaves the river hex.

5.71 Minor Rivers

Foot and mechanized units may enter minor river hexes without bridges or fords by paying the MP cost for river hexes on the TEC. They may cross to the other side of the river by paying the normal MP cost for the hex entered. Motorized units may not enter a minor river hex except on a road or trail, in a town or village, or at a bridge or ford. Motorized units may not cross it (except at a bridge or ford) without help from an ENG (5.73).

5.72 Major Rivers

Foot and Mechanized units may enter Major River hexes without bridges or fords by paying the River hex MP cost on the TEC. Motorized units may not enter a Major River hex except on a road or trail, in a town or village, or at a bridge or ford. Motorized units may not cross it (except at a bridge or ford) unless assisted by an ENG. Foot and mechanized units may move down the river from river hex to river hex, paying the River MP cost, but no unit may cross a major river at any spot other than a bridge or ford unless it is an ENG, or has the assistance of an ENG.

5.73 River Crossing Procedure

To assist units crossing a river, an ENG unit must enter the river hex first. Units needing the ENG's assistance to cross cannot enter the river hex until at least the turn after the ENG enters it. The ENG must be in good order and remain in the river hex without moving during all game turns in which it helps other units to cross. Each crossing foot and mechanized unit must pay the normal MP cost to enter the ENG's hex. Motorized units can only enter the ENG's hex if they start their activation adjacent to it. All units entering the ENG's hex may move no farther that turn.

In any subsequent game turn, the crossing unit may attempt to leave the river hex. If the unit is a motorized unit crossing a minor river, it may leave the river hex automatically. If the unit is crossing a major river, the owning player rolls two dice and compares the result to the River Crossing Number for the unit's type (foot, motorized or mechanized) in the scenario instructions. Unless scenario instructions state otherwise, the unit can leave the river hex and cross if the result is equal to or less than the River Crossing Number. If not, the unit remains in the river hex and may not move this turn. It may try again next turn.

ENG units on their own may enter a major river hex and exit on any subsequent turn on a successful Foot crossing roll.

5.74 Limitations

Up to three combat units, plus three transports (including APCs), plus any number of leaders may stack in the same river hex with an ENG. An ENG does NOT count against stacking limits in river hexes, but does count when determining column modifiers in direct and bombardment fire.

For example, two or three non-APC combat units plus an ENG in a river hex give the enemy a +1 column shift.

5.75 Combat Effects of Rivers

Units in a river hex (whether they're crossing or not) can be attacked normally, even by Assault (12.0). If units assault into a Major River hex, the attacker suffers a -2 column modifier on the first assault round IF neither side has an ENG in the hex.

If the ENG assisting a crossing becomes disrupted or demoralized, all friendly units in the hex with it at the time become disrupted. If a demoralized ENG fails to recover morale and leaves the hex, the other units with it must do the same (exposing them all to a "free shot" if the hex exited is an assault hex, 12.12). All the units leaving the hex must move back in the direction they came from; they may not cross the river when their ENG flees.

5.8 Disorientation

Some scenarios call for one or both sides to suffer disorientation in jungle or in other conditions. If so, every time a unit attempts to move into a new hex (except to initiate assault), the player must designate the desired hex into which they intend to move and roll two dice to determine which hex the unit actually enters (see diagram). If the move would cause the unit to violate a movement rule (for example, to leave the map, exceed stacking limits, etc.) then the unit stays in place without further movement and is marked Moved/Fired. Note that on a result of 7 the unit expends the normal MPs for the hex it already occupies but does not move. If the unit has remaining MPs, it may try to move again.

5.9 Dragging Weapons

Good order foot units with a movement allowance of three or more may, by expending their full movement allowance, "drag" the following limbered or unlimbered weapon units one hex in lieu of any other movement: 25mm, 37mm and 2-pounder anti-tank or 20mm AA weapons (and others as specified in a game's special rules section). Both the dragged and dragging units must begin the turn in the same hex to perform this movement, and both are marked Moved/Fired after the move. The move may not enter prohibited terrain nor an enemy occupied hex. No other weapon units may be dragged.

6.0 Leaders

Leaders are the most important pieces in the game. Their presence is required for most combat units to operate effectively.

6.1 Leader Selection

Unless scenario instructions state otherwise, players select leaders randomly for each scenario. Each player places all his side's leaders of the rank(s) specified in the scenario in an opaque container. He draws one out and "flips" it like a coin. Each leader piece has two sides, each side representing a different leader. Use the leader on the side that lands face-up. Continue drawing and flipping leaders until the number of leaders of each rank specified in the scenario have been drawn.

6.2 Leader Activation

A leader may only be activated if it is not currently marked with a Moved/Fired marker. A leader with a Moved/Fired marker may assist friendly units undergoing morale checks (14.1) or defending against an assault (12.4), but may not activate friendly units (3.1), assist recovering units (14.4), or initiate an assault (12.11).

6.3 Movement

Leaders move as Foot units and have a movement allowance of 4, except for cavalry leaders (6.91) who have a movement allowance of 6. Scenario instructions may also modify leader movement. All leaders except cavalry leaders may be transported (5.6). A leader may move with any unit he activates, and can ride on a non-transport unit that has a higher movement allowance than he does (such as a motorcycle unit).

6.4 Combat
6.41 Combining Fire

Units stacked together in the same hex may always add their direct fire or bombardment fire values together into one combined attack without the help of a leader. Units may not combine different fire types (such as direct and bombardment) into one attack - only fire values of the same type may combine. Different units may never combine their Anti-Tank Fire values into one attack.

Units in different hexes may not combine their fire values into one attack without the aid of a leader. An activated, good-order leader with a combat modifier of "1" may combine the Direct or Bombardment fire values of units in his hex plus one adjacent hex. An activated, good order leader with a combat modifier of "2" may combine the Direct or Bombardment fire values of units in his hex plus two adjacent hexes. He MAY NOT combine Direct and Bombardment fire into one attack. Leaders can combine fire and add their modifiers during Opportunity Fire as well (13.0).

6.42 Firepower Enhancement

An activated, undemoralized leader may add his combat modifier to the direct fire value of one unit in his own hex. For example, a German leader with a combat modifier of 1 may increase the direct fire value of an INF unit in his hex from 5 to 6. Defending leaders in assaults (12.0) can add their combat bonuses to defending units even though they're not activated. If a hex contains multiple units and leaders, then each leader may add his combat bonus to the firepower of only one unit, and each unit may receive a firepower bonus from only one leader.

6.43 Assault

One undemoralized leader in an assault hex gives friendly units there a +1 column shift (see Assault Table). Additional friendly leaders do not give additional column shifts. Up to one leader per fighting unit may increases the unit's assault value by the amount of his combat modifier.

6.5 Leader Effects on Morale
6.51 Morale Checks

A leader may assist units in his hex and adjacent hexes in their morale checks. Add the leader's morale modifier to the morale of the units undergoing the morale check, not to exceed the maximum (14.1, 14.5). A leader does not have to be activated to assist in morale checks, and may assist even if he has a Moved/Fired marker on him.

6.52 Recovery

An activated leader may help the units he activates to recover from disruption or demoralization (14.4). Add the leader's morale modifier to the morale of the units attempting recovery, not to exceed the maximum (14.5). A given unit may benefit from only one leader's morale modifier - do not add multiple leaders' modifiers. If a leader activates lower-ranking leaders through subordinate activation (3.2), the lower-ranking leaders may add their own morale modifiers to the morale of recovering units they activate (not the superior leader's modifier). Leaders must activate to assist in recovery. A disrupted leader may recover and assist recovery in the same activation (in the same hex); a demoralized leader may not.

6.53 Chasing Rabbits

If a demoralized unit in an activated good-order leader's hex fails to recover and flees (14.31), the leader may, but is not required to, move with it. If the leader is Disrupted, he must voluntarily become demoralized himself if he wants to flee with it (change his marker from Disrupted to Demoralized and move him with the fleeing unit).

6.54 Good Order, Disrupted, and Demoralized Leaders

Any one good-order leader may assist units in his hex and adjacent hexes to check morale and recover. A disrupted leader may assist units in his hex only; a demoralized leader may assist no one.

6.55 Leaders Helping Leaders

A leader may use his morale modifier to assist lower-ranking leaders just as he would to assist units, but may not help himself.

6.56 Restrictions

A leader may not move to a different hex or participate in Fire actions in the same action segment in which he assists a recovery attempt (Exception: He may flee with a demoralized unit in his hex that fails to recover, 14.31). Place a Moved/Fired marker on him.

6.6 Kommissars (KOM)

Soviet, Communist Chinese, and other forces occasionally include Kommissars. Kommissars are treated as leaders for purposes of being killed (6.7) and rolling morale, but otherwise do not function as leaders. They serve only to assist demoralized units (of any type including AFV) to recover (14.4). They may not assist demoralized leaders. Kommissars are activated individually and never affected by other leaders.

6.61 Required Movement

A KOM must move to the nearest demoralized friendly unit by the shortest route (in terms of MP cost) possible.

6.62 Party Discipline

To assist in recovery, the KOM must be activated and begin the action segment stacked with the demoralized unit(s) (which must also be activated). Use the KOM's morale value in place of the units' morale, and roll for recovery for each of the units.

6.63 Benevolent Assistance

If the recovery attempt is successful the unit recovers to good order (not disruption). If the recovery attempt is unsuccessful, the unit suffers a step loss and remains demoralized. If the demoralized unit must flee due to failure to recover (14.31), the KOM must move with it but does not suffer any change in its own morale.

6.64 Self-Criticism

Disrupted KOMs may assist demoralized units with which they are stacked to recover. Demoralized KOMs may not.

6.65 Mandatory Re-Education

If a KOM is stacked with a demoralized unit, he must at some point in the turn be activated and assist the unit in recovery. The Soviet player may not pass if he has an unactivated KOM stacked with an unactivated, demoralized non-AFV unit. If a demoralized non-AFV unit activates to recover, any KOM with them must activate to assist, and non-KOM leaders may not apply their morale modifier for these recovery attempts.

6.66 Rule of the Beast

If two KOMs are in play and only one Soviet unit in play is demoralized, then only one KOM (the closest in terms of MPs) need move toward it.

Example: On his turn the Soviet player has three demoralized units. He activates his one Kommissar unit which is two, six, and nine MPs respectively away from the demoralized units. He must move the Kommissar toward the closest unit (two MPs away) and stack with it. On the following turn when he activates the Kommissar and the demoralized unit, he rolls a recovery attempt using the Kommissar's value (9 in this case) and succeeds, rolling a 7. The unit is changed from Demoralized to good order, and on the next turn the Kommissar would move to the next nearest demoralized unit. If he had failed to recover the unit, it would have taken a step loss and the Kommissar would have stayed in place and attempted recovery again on the next turn (assuming the step loss did not eliminate the unit).

6.7 Leader Casualties

Leaders can be eliminated in more than one way. A demoralized leader who is again demoralized is eliminated (14.11). A demoralized leader who obtains a result of 12 on his recovery die roll deserts and is eliminated (14.44). Otherwise, if a leader is in a hex where any units suffer step losses, he may be killed or badly wounded. After all step losses have been applied and all morale checks are complete, the owning player rolls two dice for each leader in the hex. Subtract one from the result for every step loss suffered by friendly units in the hex. On a modified result of 2 or less, the leader is eliminated.

Additionally, if a leader is being transported in a vehicle unit that suffers elimination, he is eliminated as well; but if a two-step vehicle unit only suffers its first step loss, then refer to the procedure above for being stacked with units that take losses. Transported leaders still suffer the morale effects suffered by their transport per 5.65, and must still test morale for themselves when called upon (double jeopardy!).

6.71 Lone Leaders

If one or more leaders are in a hex with no other units, one leader is eliminated per step loss scored on the hex by bombardment or direct fire (for example, X = one leader eliminated, 2X = two leaders eliminated, etc.). If one or more enemy combat units (not unarmed transports or leaders) enter such a hex, roll two dice for each friendly leader in the hex. On a result of 9 or more the leader is removed from play. On a result less than 9, he is displaced to an adjacent hex that is either friendly-controlled or vacant. If all adjacent hexes are enemy-occupied, he is eliminated. When leaders are fired upon by Direct Fire or Bombardment they suffer no unit-specific modifiers, but may be affected by target hex modifiers.

6.72 Decapitation

If the highest-ranking leader on a side is eliminated, each unactivated leader must immediately take a morale check, and if any of them fail they are marked Moved/Fired. In addition, at the beginning of the next turn the new senior leader must make a morale check; if he passes then all forces operate normally. If he fails then again every other leader must make an immediate morale check and any that fail are marked Moved/Fired. In addition, that side suffers a permanent -1 penalty to its Initiative, but its Initiative may never fall to less than 0. This decapitation effect only occurs once - subsequent leader losses do not incur this penalty again.

6.73 Catastrophic Loss

If a leader with a rank of MAJ or higher is eliminated, all friendly units which were stacked with him undergo an immediate morale check. Subtract (do not add as is normal) the eliminated leader's morale modifier from the morale of each unit checking morale.

6.8 Tank Leaders

All German AFVs, all British AFVs after August 1943, all Soviet Guards AFVs in scenarios taking place in 1943 or later, and all American and Polish AFVs in scenarios taking place in 1944 or later have tank leaders. For other forces, the scenario instructions designate how many tank leaders a side has. The owning player secretly assigns the tank leaders to his or her AFV units (record the letter IDs of the AFVs with tank leaders). APCs, self-propelled artillery, and armored engineer vehicles never have tank leaders and may not have tank leaders assigned to them, however, they can all be activated by tank leaders and regular leaders. Regular leaders may not use their morale modifier to assist AFV morale checks or recovery.

6.81 Effects

A tank leader can activate AFVs (including APCs) in his own hex and all six adjacent hexes. If an AFV is activated by a tank leader, it can initiate an assault (12.1) or move closer to an enemy unit that can spot it, has range on it, and could obtain a combat result on it through Anti-Tank Fire.

6.82 Limitations

Tank leaders have no rank, cannot activate non-AFV units, cannot activate other tank leaders through subordinate activation (3.2), may not spot for bombardment fire (9.1), and do not modify combat or morale.

6.83 Other Leaders

Regular leaders may not activate or direct tanks (1.2), reconnaissance vehicles (usually armored cars, 1.2), or tank leaders. However, they can activate APCs, self-propelled artillery, and engineering vehicles (like the AVRE or Crab) even if they are AFVs. Any AFVs and tank leaders stacked in the regular leader's hex can activate simultaneously with him if the stack self-activates.

6.84 Activating Together

If a regular leader is stacked with a tank leader and the stack self-activates (3.11), then both leaders activate simultaneously (this counts as one activation). They may activate AFVs, non- AFV units and lower-ranking leaders in the stack and adjacent hexes normally. All such units and leaders may perform any type of move and fire actions (3.11) and subordinate activation (3.2) normally, all in the same action segment. This includes moving closer to enemy units and/or initiating assaults (5.4, 12.11).

6.85 Reconnaisaance Leaders

Every reconnaissance unit (foot or vehicle; may be defined in the scenario book) always has a Reconnaissance Leader. A Reconnaissance Leader has the same capabilities and limitations (6.82) as a Tank Leader, except that he may only activate Reconnaissance units.

6.9 Special Leaders
6.91 Cavalry Leaders

A player whose forces include cavalry units may designate any of his or her leaders as cavalry leaders unless the scenario rules state otherwise. Cavalry leaders have a movement allowance of 6, and are the only leaders that may order a cavalry charge (15.31), or Overrun (see Optional Rules). In all other respects they act like regular leaders.

6.92 Naval and Train Leaders

Naval and train units all have inherent leaders for activation and movement purposes (allowing them to close with the enemy). Unlike regular leaders, activating one naval or train unit allows simultaneous activation of any or all other friendly naval or train units, whatever their location.

7.0 Combat
7.1 Types

Each unit which elects to "Fire" during its activation segment may perform one type of fire. The fire types available are:

  • Bombardment Fire (9.0)
  • Direct Fire (10.0)
  • Anti-Tank Fire (11.0)
  • Assault (12.0)

Alternatively, inactive units may use Opportunity Fire (13.0) to attack spotted, moving individual enemy units with direct or anti-tank fire. Units may only perform a given fire type if the values for the fire type are printed on the unit's piece (7.3).

7.2 Restrictions
7.21 Spotting Requirement

Units must be able to spot (8.0) enemy units in order to fire on them, except for units using bombardment fire. A friendly undemoralized regular leader in spotting range (8.1) of the target may spot the target for bombarding units which can't spot it on their own.

7.22 Multiple Fire Types

A unit may not conduct more than one type of fire (7.1) per turn. Units may not activate or fire in a friendly action phase if they undertook Opportunity Fire (13.0) in an enemy action phase.

7.23 Split Fire

A unit must apply its entire fire value against a single target - it may not "split" its fire to attack more than one target in the same action segment. Exception: An HMG unit may divide its direct fire value to attack multiple targets in the same action segment. This "split" fire may be combined with the fire values of other units normally (7.33). The smallest number into which an HMG's fire value may be split is 3 (thus a German 9-5 HMG can hit three separate targets at a strength of 3 each). An HMG may not split its fire when conducting Opportunity Fire (13.0).

7.24 Blocked Fire

Units may not target direct fire at a hex containing friendly units, nor may they trace direct fire through a hex containing friendly non-armored units (exception: see 10.1). They MAY target bombardment fire at an assault hex. They may also target anti-tank fire at an assault hex IF there are no friendly vehicle units in that hex.

7.25 Armor Immunity

If a unit has a printed armor value (even a value of 0), it is immune to all but an X or #X result on the direct fire or bombardment fire tables. If the unit is an APC, any unit or leader it's transporting is immune as well. Armor gives no protection on the Assault Table (for example, M = Morale Check for all assault targets including all AFVs).

7.3 Unit Fire Value and Range

A unit's fire value and range are printed on its playing piece in the form of two numbers separated by a dash. The number before the dash is the fire value - the number after the dash is the range. Some units have more than one type of fire value. Fire values are color-coded by type as follows:

  • Black: Direct Fire
  • Outlined White: Bombardment Fire
  • Red on Yellow: Anti-Tank Fire

Note that some unit color schemes differ slightly; this should be obvious but check the game's scenario book in case of confusion.

7.31 Restrictions

Units must possess the appropriate fire value in order to perform a specific type of fire. For example, a unit with no Anti-Tank value may not use Anti-Tank Fire.

7.32 Combat Range

Units must be within range of their intended targets to attack them. Trace a line from the center of the firing unit's hex to the center of the target hex, and count the hexes through which the line passes. The number of hexes must be equal to or less than the firing unit's range. Count the hex occupied by the target unit(s) but not the hex(es) occupied by the firing units.

7.33 Combining Fire

Units (including strongpoints) may add their direct or bombardment fire values together to make one stronger attack. Only fire of the same type may combine - direct fire may never combine with bombardment fire. Anti-Tank Fire values may never combine under any circumstances. Units stacked together in the same hex may always combine fire, whether they have a leader or not. Units in adjacent hexes may combine fire only if activated by a leader who has a combat modifier. A leader can combine the fire of his hex plus a number of adjacent hexes equal to his combat modifier (6.41).

Up to three off-board artillery increments may be combined into one attack per action segment. They may not be combined with on-board units. When using combined fire to attack with units at varying ranges to the target (for example, one unit adjacent to the target and one unit two hexes away) always apply the most restrictive column shifts on the fire table.

Example: The Soviet Captain, with a combat modifier of 1 is stacked with one INF unit and adjacent to a Soviet HMG. In the activation the leader activates both units to direct fire combined at the German SPW251. Firing separately the INF would fire on the 4 column with no modifier and the HMG would fire on the 4 column as well due to the -1 shift for the target being 3 or more hexes away. Combined they are 12 shifted -1 due to the HMG range to the 7 column.

7.4 Fire Effects

All types if combat may result in one of the following results (see appropriate tables):

  • -: No effect.
  • M: The affected unit makes a morale check (14.1).
  • M#: Same as M except add the # to the morale check dice roll.
  • #: Indicates that # step losses must be taken - see the charts for specific applications.
7.41 Direct and Bombardment Fire

Direct fire and bombardment attacks affect all units in the target hex except for AFVs. AFVs (and anything loaded on APCs) are only affected by an "X" or "#X" result.

7.42 Anti-Tank Fire

Anti-Tank Fire only affects the individual vehicle unit fired upon (and anything it's transporting).

7.43 Assault

Assault affects all enemy units that participate in the assault combat (12.3). The first step loss in assault must be applied to units with the best morale status (7.63).

7.44 Opportunity Fire

Opportunity Fire only affects the individual moving unit fired upon (and any unit or leader(s) it's transporting). Units with direct fire values, and AFVs with Armor Efficiency (11.2), may conduct two opportunity fires each turn in two different enemy activations.

7.45 Results

Determine results on the combat results table for the appropriate type of fire. Results may range from the target unit(s) having to take step losses (7.6) or morale checks (14.1) to no effect at all. Step loss results may be applied to any unit the owner desires in the hex, except when executing Opportunity Fire (13.0) or when specified by the Direct Fire or Bombardment Fire tables.

7.46 Moved/Fired Markers

Once a unit has performed any type of fire, place a Moved/Fired marker on it to show that it may perform no further action this turn (exception: a "Free Shot" when all enemy units exit an assault hex, 12.12). When a unit uses its first Opportunity Fire in a turn, place two Moved/Fired markers on it. When the unit uses its second Opportunity Fire in the turn, remove the second Moved/Fired marker and leave the first to show it may not move, fire or activate this turn.

7.5 Column and Dice Roll Modifiers

Some conditions change the column used on the direct fire, bombardment or assault table, or modify the result of an Anti-Tank Fire dice roll.

7.51 Applying a Column Modifier

When a column modifier is applicable, go up or down a number of columns equal to the modifier. For example, a modifier of +2 would change a bombardment attack from the 5 column to the 12 column. See the tables for the column modifiers for each fire type. Only the Direct Fire Table has maximum positive and negative column modifiers (10.3), but no attack on any table is ever reduced below the lowest column on the table. When a dice roll modifier is applicable to Anti-Tank Fire, add or subtract it from the result.

7.52 Separate Column Modifers in One Attack

In some cases, a column modifier will apply to some units in a target hex but not others. In such a case, make one dice roll for the attack, but use different columns to determine the combat results on the different target units.

Example: An SS HMG unit with a direct fire value of 11 fires at a hex containing a Soviet INF unit, a 76.2mm artillery unit, and a truck. The range is two hexes, so the HMG attacks the INF and truck units on the 11 column of the Direct Fire Table, and attacks the artillery unit on the 22 column (+2 column modifier vs. artillery). The German player rolls once, rolling a 4. That's an M1 result vs. the INF and truck units, and an X result vs. the weapon unit. The weapon unit is eliminated, and this elimination changes the M1 morale check result for the INF unit to an M2 check (always take the worst case). The truck would have also taken an M1 morale check changed to an M2 like the INF, but the gun elimination also forced the elimination of the truck (see Direct Fire Table for combat results descriptions).

7.6 Step Losses

A full-strength unit which takes a step loss must flip to its reduced-strength side. A reduced-strength unit which takes a step loss is eliminated. A unit with no reduced strength side that takes a step loss is also eliminated. Any unit that takes two or more step losses is eliminated. If a transport is eliminated, any unit or leader which was loaded on it at the time is also eliminated. Any unit that suffers a step loss and survives must take an immediate M2 morale check.

7.61 Direct and Bombardment Fire

Each direct or bombardment fire attack affects the entire target hex. An "X" result on the Direct or Bombardment Fire table causes the following damage:

  1. One step loss to one combat unit in the hex (except closed-top AFVs), AND
  2. One step loss to one wagon, truck or sledge unit in the hex.

In all cases, the owning player chooses which unit in both of the categories listed takes the step loss. If a hex does not contain units of a given type (for example, no wagon, truck or sledge units), the step loss to that type of unit is ignored. If a "2X" or "3X" result is rolled, the fire causes two or three step losses (respectively) to both unit types above. The owning player gets to choose which units in each category take the second and third step losses, except that at least one of the step losses must be taken by an open-top AFV if present.

Closed-top AFVs never take step losses from direct or bombardment fire. However, they must all make an M morale check in a hex where an X, 2X or 3X result occurs. All other surviving units in the hex must make an M2 morale check after step losses are applied.

Example: A "2X" result is rolled against a hex containing a full-strength German INF unit, a Tiger tank, an SPW 251 APC and two wagon units. This inflicts one step loss on the German INF unit and eliminates the APC plus both wagon units. The tank and the reduced-strength INF unit remain in the hex. The tank must make an M morale check, while the INF unit must make an M2 morale check.

7.62 Anti-Tank Fire

Combat results inflicted by Anti-Tank Fire only affect the individual target unit fired upon.

7.63 Assault

If a "1" result is rolled on the Assault Table, the fire causes the following damage:

  1. One step loss to one enemy combat unit of any kind in the assault hex, AND;
  2. One step loss to one enemy wagon, truck or sledge unit in the hex.

In both of the unit type categories above, the first step loss must be taken by a unit with the best morale status. A good-order unit must take the first step loss if friendly disrupted or demoralized units of its type are present in the hex. If all friendly units of a given type in the hex are disrupted and demoralized, then a disrupted unit must take the step loss. If all friendly units of a given type are demoralized, the owning player chooses which one takes the first step loss.

If a "2" or "3" result is rolled, the fire causes two or three step losses (respectively) to both unit types listed above. The owning player may choose which units in each category take the second and third step losses, except that at least one of the step losses must be taken by an AFV (of any type) if present. As with direct and bombardment fire, step losses to absent unit types are ignored.

Example: A German-occupied hex contains an INF unit, a disrupted HMG, a Tiger tank, an SPW 251 APC, and two trucks. All units are full-strength. If Allied units assault into the hex and roll a "1" result, the German player would be required to remove one truck from play, and then apply a step loss to either the INF, tank or APC (his choice). He could not apply the step loss to the HMG because it's disrupted and the other combat units are not.

If the Allied player had rolled a "2" or "3" result, the German player would be required to remove both trucks from play. He would then be free to allocate the two or three step losses among his units as desired, except that he must apply the first step loss to a unit other than the disrupted HMG, and he must apply at least one step loss to the tank or the APC.

After applying all step losses, each surviving unit must make an M2 morale check. If any active units in the assault hex did not participate in the assault, then any step losses their side takes may not be applied to them (12.3).

7.64 Opportunity Fire

Opportunity Fire only affects the single moving unit that is the target of the fire. Therefore, combat results (including step losses) inflicted by Opportunity Fire do not apply to any other units in the hex with the moving unit. Each unit may conduct two Opportunity Fire attacks per turn if it is using direct fire, or if it is an AFV with armor efficiency (11.2) using Anti-Tank Fire.

8.0 Spotting

Spotting is seeing the enemy so you can shoot him, and is only performed by combat units (1.2), and sometimes leaders. Each type of fire (Direct, Bombardment, Anti-Tank, and Opportunity Fire) has a slightly different spotting requirement. Direct Fire affects the entire hex, and at least one enemy unit in the target hex must be spotted by the firing unit. Once such a unit is spotted, the hex may be fired on and all units in the hex are affected normally whether they're spotted or not (8.2, Exception: 7.64).

Bombardment Fire is similar in that it affects the whole hex and at least one enemy unit in the target hex must be spotted, but either the firing unit OR a friendly leader can spot the enemy for Bombardment Fire.

For Anti-Tank and Opportunity Fire, the individual target unit must be spotted by the firing unit to be fired on, whether other units in the hex are spotted or not (8.2). When the unit or leader that spotted an enemy moves out of spotting range, that enemy is no longer spotted (there is no "passing" of the spotted information to others; exception: 8.22).

8.1 Spotting Range

Spotting range is the distance in hexes from a unit's location to the enemy units it can "see". During daylight, units in clear terrain can see 12 hexes in all directions. Limiting terrain (8.2) and elevated terrain (indicated by the elevation lines; 8.3) reduce spotting range, either by concealing units occupying the limiting terrain, or blocking line of sight (LOS, 8.4). Units on elevated terrain have their spotting ranges increased (8.33, 8.34), though it does not increase the range at which they can be seen. Weather or time of day may decrease spotting range (see also scenario special rules). Spotting range at night is normally one or two hexes. Some scenarios include other special spotting rules.

8.11 From Dusk to Dawn

The transition from night to day or vice versa presents a time of changing spotting range. Scenario specific rules will identify the time Day or Night occurs. Use the following spotting ranges in relation to those times.

  • Dawn minus 60 minutes: spotting range 1 or 2 hexes (see below), night rules in effect.
  • Dawn minus 45 minutes: spotting range 2 hexes, night rules in effect.
  • Dawn minus 30 minutes: spotting range 4 hexes, no night rules.
  • Dawn minus 15 minutes: spotting range 8 hexes, no night rules.
  • Day: spotting range 12 hexes.
  • Dusk minus 60 minutes: spotting range 12 hexes.
  • Dusk minus 45 minutes: spotting range 8 hexes, no night rules.
  • Dusk minus 30 minutes: spotting range 4 hexes, no night rules.
  • Dusk minus 15 minutes: spotting range 2 hexes, night rules in effect.
  • Night: spotting range 1 or 2 hexes (see below), night rules in effect.
8.12 Darkness of Night

If the scenario rules do not specify, roll a die for spotting range at the beginning of the game; on a result of 1 through 4 the spotting range is one hex, on a result of 5 or 6 result spotting range is two hexes.

8.2 Limiting Terrain

The Terrain Effects Chart (TEC) lists many types of terrain that prevent seeing units concealed inside that terrain until within a certain distance. Such terrain is called "Limiting Terrain." Not all limiting terrain blocks LOS (8.4), but many do.

For example, Fields, Brush, and Tall Grass are limiting terrain that does not block LOS, and towns and woods do block it - see the Terrain Effects Chart. Scenarios may specify additional limiting terrain types.

8.21 Spotting in Limiting Terrain

A unit occupying limiting terrain may only be spotted by enemy units within the designated distance on the Terrain Effects Chart (or less if the current spotting range is less due to night, weather, or other special scenario rules), or the line of sight to the unit's hex is blocked (8.41). Spotting range is three hexes for units or leaders in limiting terrain unless the TEC or scenario special rules specify differently.

8.22 "Spotted" Markers

When a unit occupying limiting terrain fires within line of sight (LOS, 8.4) of an enemy, place a Spotted marker on top of the unit that fired, and another marker underneath any units in the hex that didn't fire. As long as the Spotted marker remains on a unit, it's considered to be in a Clear hex for spotting purposes (units up to 12 hexes away can spot it during daylight turns if they have a line-of sight to the unit's hex), although the unit still receives any defensive benefits of the terrain for combat.

Enemy units in range may use direct and bombardment fire against a hex with a Spotted marker, and all units in the hex (whether spotted or not) are affected normally. However, only units with a Spotted marker on top of them may be hit by Anti-Tank Fire. If a unit with a Spotted marker on top of it moves to another hex that is either limiting terrain AND a greater distance than the Terrain Effects Chart spotting range from enemy units, OR is outside the enemy LOS, remove the Spotted marker from the unit.

All units in an assault hex are marked with a Spotted marker.

Because spotted units lose their spotted status when they leave their original hex and enter another limiting terrain hex, they cannot be fired upon with opportunity fire during this movement unless the firing unit(s) can spot the target in both hexes. Opportunity Fire may only occur when a unit moves into a hex where it remains spotted.

In the illustration, the German engineer unit is spotted in its current Heavy Woods hex which is limiting terrain. If it moves to location X it will no longer be spotted by the Soviet unit in hex 0802 because it's four hexes away in limiting terrain, but the new hex can be spotted by the Soviet unit in hex 0404, so he stays spotted. If the German moved to location Y it would no longer be spotted.

8.23 Special Spotting Powers

Both foot and vehicle mounted recce units (1.2) possess two special spotting abilities. The first ability is that they can spot enemy in limiting terrain at one hex further than the TEC specifies for other units and leaders. For example, an enemy unit in town can normally be spotted at three hexes or less, but a recce unit can spot them at four hexes. Their second ability is that they can place a Spotted marker on any one enemy unit they can spot per turn, just as if the enemy unit had "blown its cover" by firing. Such Spotted markers are removed as described earlier.

8.24 Terrain Artwork

A hex contains limiting terrain if the terrain drawing fills more than one-quarter of the hex (a tiny sliver is not limiting terrain). In most cases it should be obvious whether the drawing fills more than a quarter of a hex, but if there is disagreement then assume the hex DOES contain limiting terrain.

8.3 Elevation

The game boards contain elevation changes elevated indicated by elevation lines specifying an elevation in meters above (or below in the case of wadi/gully) the basic board.

8.31 Elevation Lines

Each line usually represents an elevation change of 20 meters. The hexes containing the elevation lines are called "slope" hexes. For the purposes of potentially blocking or allowing LOS, they are considered the full elevation throughout the hex. Slope hexes do not provide concealment, however, so are not limiting terrain, though they may block LOS. Steep slopes are similar but represent larger elevation changes and present additional difficulties. Units on a higher elevation have combat advantages; see the fire tables.

On most boards elevation lines encircle other elevated hexes creating what is usually called a "hill". These other interior elevated non-slope hexes are considered clear terrain unless occupied by some other terrain feature like woods.

8.32 Terrain that Blocks LOS

The TEC specifies which terrain features are tall enough to block LOS due to vegetation, buildings or other obstructions for a spotter and target on the same level. For game LOS purposes, they are assumed to be 20 meters in elevation in addition to the elevation of the land upon which they sit.

For example: in the illustration, the light woods in location A (hex 0903) are 20 meters tall and on a 20-meter elevation, for a total of a 40-meter LOS obstacle. The same would be true of the town in location B (hex 1004). The light woods in location C (hex 1205) would only be a 20-meter elevation as the land is level (0 meters).

8.33 Increased Spotting Range

The spotting range from a hex is increased by six hexes for every level of elevation above the hex being spotted. Therefore a unit in a hex with a 40-meter elevation can spot units at 0-meter elevation up to 12 + (2 x 6) = 24 hexes away. This increase is limited during turns affected by night, weather, or other reduced visibility to the maximum spotting distance for those conditions. Spotting range from lower to higher elevations is never increased for any reason.

8.34 Town Hexes

Normally units or leaders spot from ground level. However, when spotting from a town hex (not a village) treat the town as being 20 meters higher than the terrain it sits on. So, if a town is located in a hex on a 20-meter elevation line, then treat it as 40 meters in elevation for purposes of LOS and spotting range. A town at zero elevation counts as 20 meters in elevation for spotting. The added elevation is for spotting only, never for firing. But an artillery or mortar unit can spot for its own fire using the higher elevation (9.1).

8.4 Line of Sight (LOS)

In order to spot an enemy unit, an active unit or leader must trace a line of sight to the target. The LOS is determined by taking a straightedge and tracing a straight line from the center of the active unit’s hex to the center of the target hex. A LOS may enter a hex with any type of terrain, but that terrain determines if the LOS passes through or not.

8.41

LOS is BLOCKED if both the spotting and target hex are on the SAME elevation, and:

  • a limiting terrain hex that blocks LOS lies between the two hexes;
  • one or more slope hexes of a higher elevation lies between the two hexes;
  • the LOS lies on a hexside between two hexes that BOTH contain either limiting terrain that blocks LOS or a slope hex of a higher elevation;
  • more than one hex of orchard, palm grove, light woods, or light jungle, or the equivalent lies between the two hexes.
8.42

LOS is BLOCKED if both the spotting and target hex are on DIFFERENT elevations, and:

  • one or more slope hexes of higher elevation than the higher unit lies between the two hexes;
  • one or more slope hexes of the same elevation as the higher unit lies between the two hexes and the slope hex is closer (not equidistant) to the lower unit than the higher one;
  • a limiting terrain hex that blocks LOS (for example, town or woods), that is higher elevation than the higher unit, lies between the two hexes;
  • a limiting terrain hex that blocks LOS (for example, town or woods), of the same elevation as the higher unit, lies between the two hexes and the limiting terrain hex is closer (not equidistant) to the lower unit than the higher one.
8.43

A LOS may pass through limiting terrain that is not elevated terrain (for example, Fields/Brush/Tall Grass).

8.44

Units never block LOS, but may block Direct Fire (7.24).

8.45

LOS works both ways. If you can see him, he can see you, unless one of you occupies a limiting terrain hex (8.21) that prevents spotting at that range.

8.46

A LOS that falls along a hex spine can pass through either of the two adjacent hexes (spotting player's choice). That choice remains constant for the remainder of the turn.

Example: The German HMG can spot the Soviet 82mm mortar since the LOS is traced down the hex spine, and can therefore pass through the hex on either side of the spine, thus not being traced through the town hex. However, the HMG cannot spot the Soviet INF since the LOS is traced through the town hex which is elevated terrain higher than the spotter (HMG) and the target (INF).

Further LOS examples are offered for clarity (see Illustration):

9.0 Bombardment Fire

Active units with Bombardment Fire values may attack hexes containing spotted enemy units within range. All enemy units in the target hex are affected.

9.1 Target Spotting

Units using Bombardment Fire don't have to spot their target themselves. A friendly, undemoralized regular leader can spot the target for them unless the scenario instructions say otherwise. Spotting for bombardment does not require the leader to activate - an unactivated leader or a leader under a Moved/Fired marker may spot for bombardment. A leader may spot for as many different bombardments per turn as desired. Tank leaders (6.8) may NOT spot for bombardment. Leaders in an assault hex may only spot for bombardment into the assault hex, while leaders being transported may spot normally.

9.2 Off-Board Artillery

Unless scenario instructions say otherwise, each off-board artillery increment available in a scenario may fire once per turn at any hex on the board containing spotted unit(s) (it has unlimited range).

9.3 Combined Fire

Bombarding units stacked in the same hex may combine their fire values without assistance from a leader. Bombarding units in adjacent hexes may combine their fire values only if a good order leader with a combat modifier is in one of those hexes (6.41, 7.33).

Up to three off-board artillery increments may combine into one fire value, but may not combine with on-board units.

Example: The scenario instructions give the American player an off-board artillery value of "3 x 20." These may be combined into one 60-value bombardment, one of 40 and one of 20, or three separate bombardments of 20. They may not be combined with any on-map units.

9.4 Procedure

For each hex being bombarded, the active player totals the bombardment fire strengths of all units bombarding the hex. He then finds the column on the Bombardment Table which either equals or does not exceed the total fire value of all units bombarding that hex this segment, and applies any column modifiers (7.5). He then rolls two dice and cross-references the result with the column arrived at, and applies the combat results (if any) to ALL units in the target hex.

9.5 Friendly Fire

If a target hex contains or is adjacent to a hex containing friendly units, the friendly units may be affected. Exception: the firing unit can never be affected by its own fire.

9.51 Same Hex

If bombardment fire hits an assault hex, both the friendly and enemy units will be affected. Roll two bombardment attacks - one for each side's units - and determine column modifiers separately for each side's units (7.52).

9.52 Adjacent Hex

If friendly units occupy a hex adjacent to a hex targeted for bombardment, the owning player rolls two dice for each such hex. Add one to the result for German, British or American bombardment fire. Add one to the result if the firing unit(s) have a LOS to the target hex. On a modified result of 2 through 5 the hex is hit by friendly fire. Multiple adjacent hexes may be hit in this way. If an adjacent hex hit by friendly fire contains both friendly and enemy units, ONLY THE FRIENDLY UNITS are hit. (Note: This rule prevents players from hitting unspotted enemy units "accidentally" through friendly fire).

If a hex is hit by friendly fire, resolve the bombardment fire attack against the friendly units in the hex normally using a new dice roll. If the firing artillery unit can spot the target hex, apply an additional -1 column shift to the friendly fire bombardment. Apply other appropriate modifiers.

9.53 Initial Target

If an adjacent hex is hit by friendly fire, the initial target hex is still bombarded normally (the fire does not "miss" the target hex).

10.0 Direct Fire

Activated units may use their Direct Fire values to fire on hexes containing spotted enemy units within range. Direct Fire affects all enemy units in the target hex.

10.1 Blocked Fire

Direct Fire may be traced through vacant hexes, enemy-occupied hexes, or hexes containing only friendly AFVs (enemy-occupied or not). Direct fire may not be traced through hexes containing friendly non-AFV units unless the firing unit is an HMG, AFV or antiaircraft unit. These units may fire "through" hexes containing all types of friendly units, IF the fire is also traced through at least one hex which:

  1. Contains no friendly units, and
  2. Is between the target hex and all friendly units along the line of fire.

This rule applies to units firing from a higher elevation through their own troops on a lower elevation as well.

Example: The German HMG wants to fire at the Soviet INF and HMG, but the friendly INF is in the way. The HMG can fire on the Soviet INF because there is a hex containing no friendly units between the German INF and the Soviet INF. It can't fire on the Soviet HMG since the line of fire goes through the friendly INF's hex and there is no hex free of friendly units between it and the enemy unit. If there were friendly units in the hexes between the German HMG and INF, it would make no difference. There need only be a hex free of friendly units between the target hex and the outermost friendly-occupied hex along the line of fire.

10.2 Procedure

For each Direct Fire attack, the active player determines whether a unit will fire individually or whether multiple units will combine fire (7.33). He then totals the direct fire strengths of all units firing in the attack, finds the column on the Direct Fire Table that either equals or does not exceed the total, and then applies any column modifiers (7.5, 10.3). He then rolls two dice and cross-references the result with the column arrived at, and applies the combat results rolled (if any) to ALL units in the target hex.

10.3 Maximum Column Modifications

Column modifiers may not increase the column used for direct fire by more than three or decrease it by more than two. The maximum/minimum only applies AFTER all the positive and negative column modifiers have been calculated. Direct Fire is the only type of fire to which these maximums apply.

Example: An Italian infantry platoon with a fire strength of 4 attacks an adjacent British-occupied hex containing three artillery units. The attack is resolved on the 16 column of the Direct Fire Table (an increase of three columns), even though the modifiers listed on the table would increase the column by five (two for point-blank range, one for three units in target hex, two for artillery in the target hex).

10.4 Restrictions

Units in assault hexes may not use Direct Fire - they may only perform assault combat (12.0) or Anti-Tank Fire (11.0) against enemy units in the assault hex.

11.0 Anti-Tank Fire

Anti-Tank Fire targets an individual enemy vehicle unit within range - no other units in the hex with the target unit are affected in any way. Only trucks, jeeps, and AFVs may be attacked with Anti-Tank Fire (some game special rules may add other targets to this list). A unit with an Anti-Tank Fire value that occupies an assault hex may use Anti-Tank Fire against enemy vehicles in that hex instead of adding their Direct Fire value to the assault total.

11.1 Procedure

For each Anti-Tank attack, the active player designates the firing unit and its target. He rolls two dice, adds the firing unit's Anti-Tank value, subtracts the target unit's armor value, and applies any other modifiers listed on the Anti-Tank Fire Table. Consult the Anti-Tank Fire Table to determine the result.

11.11 Trucks

Trucks have no armor protection, but are treated as having an armor value of -1 only for purposes of calculating Anti-Tank Fire dice roll modifiers against them.

11.12 Crossfire

The Anti-Tank Fire Table contains this modifier: "+2 if the target is attacked this turn through two or more non-adjacent hexes." This applies only to attacks traced through a non-adjacent hex after the first Anti-Tank attack against the vehicle this turn (not necessarily during the same action segment). The modifier does not apply if the target unit moves after the first unit fires on it and before the second unit fires.

To qualify for the crossfire modifier, the second and/or subsequent Anti-Tank attack must be traced through an actual non-adjacent hex, not along the spine between an adjacent and a non-adjacent hex.

Anti-Tank attacks that have no chance for a step loss can still be used to set up the crossfire bonus.

Example: The Soviet Grant has already fired on the German PzIIIG during this turn. In subsequent shots, the Soviet T70 does not qualify for the crossfire bonus because it is shooting down the hex spine. The T34C does qualify, however, because its line of fire is being traced through a non-adjacent hex.

11.2 Armor Efficiency

Some armor units, due to the high caliber of their training, equipment, and/or experience are rated as Efficient. If they have printed Anti-Tank Fire values, they can make two Anti-Tank Fire attacks per turn (either in their action segment or during opportunity fire, but NOT one of each). The two attacks need not be made against the same target.

The following units have "armor efficiency":

  • Full-strength (not reduced) German AFV units;
  • Full-strength Soviet Guards AFV units in scenarios taking place in 1943 or later;
  • Full-strength American, Commonwealth, French and Polish AFV units in scenarios taking place in 1944 or later.
  • Others specified in a game’s special rules.
11.3 Increased Range

Each unit with a printed Anti-Tank Fire value of 2 or more may increase its Anti-Tank range by 50% (round fractions up), but may only fire at half its Anti-Tank Fire value.

Example: A PzIIIG with a 3-7 Anti-Tank rating would fire at strength 2 (3 halved to 1.5 and rounded up) at a range of 11 (7 plus 3.5 rounded up).

11.4 Special Aircraft Anti-Tank Fire

Some aircraft have a special Anti-Tank factor (a number printed on a black circle). When attacking, these units fire on hexes using their Direct Fire values normally (15.11). In addition, if any vehicle units are in the hex attacked, the owning player rolls a number of dice equal to the circled Anti-Tank factor on the air unit (after resolving the direct fire attack). For every result of 6, the Anti-Tank Fire inflicts a step loss on one vehicle in the hex. For each step loss inflicted, the firing player rolls an extra die. On a result of 1 through 3, the enemy player chooses which unit takes the step loss. On a result of 4 through 6, the firing player chooses which unit takes the step loss.

11.5 Special Foot Anti-Tank Fire

Some games designate specific foot units that possess short-range anti-tank weaponry, in addition to their printed combat values, that they can use in assault combat (12.0). A foot unit that possesses this ability may either use its Direct Fire or its Anti-Tank Fire ability, but not both (similar to how an AFV chooses which weapon to fire). The Anti-Tank Fire value of the special foot weapon is 6 and the range is 0 (same hex). For each foot unit using Anti-Tank Fire, either attacking or defending in assault, roll one die for each eligible unit. On each result of 1 through 3 there is no effect and its combat is complete. On a result of 4 through 6 the unit fires its Anti-Tank weapon and resolves the Anti-Tank Fire die roll normally (11.1) except that the die roll modifiers from the Anti-Tank Fire Table do not apply. The only applicable modifier is +1 if there are no enemy personnel units in the assault hex along with the enemy vehicle unit(s) (mortar units do not count). Reduced-strength units and disrupted or demoralized units cannot make short-range Anti-Tank Fire die rolls.

12.0 Assault

Assault combat takes place between opposing units occupying the same hex.

12.1 Assault Movement
12.11 Entering a Hex

Only activated good-order units directed by a leader of their own type (regular or tank), or by any leader for APCs, may enter an adjacent hex occupied by enemy units. Entry requires a "fire" activation since combat will result, even though it's movement too. This is called "assault movement." They may do this only if they start their activation adjacent to the enemy-occupied hex they wish to enter (Exception: Cavalry Charges, 15.31; Extended Assault or Overrun, see Optional Rules), and must stop moving once they've entered the hex. This initiates an assault (or reinforces an existing one). The assaulting units are the "attacker"; their opponents are the "defender." The attacker can change in later action segments or turns - defending units that survive the first segment of assault can counterattack during their owning player's action segment, at which point they become the attacker. Attacker status can go back and forth as long as both sides have units in the hex. Units which begin their activation in an assault hex or enter an existing assault hex are not required to assault, and can opt to recover morale, leave the hex, do nothing (12.3), or perform some other task. Stacking limits (4.1) still apply for each side's units.

12.12 Exiting a Hex

Active units may exit an assault hex but may only move a single hex when doing so. The hex entered may not be enemy-occupied (except for unarmed, empty enemy transports and enemy leaders).

If, during a given action segment, ALL of a player's combat units exit an assault hex (leaving no combat units to guard their retreat), then ALL the exiting units (not just the last unit to leave) may be assaulted by the enemy units in the assault hex using the Assault Table. This is a "free shot." The units attacking the exiting units do not have to activate, don't have a Moved/Fired marker placed on them when they fire, and can fire even if they have a Moved/Fired marker on them already. The firing units attack all the exiting units as a group with one dice roll, and no negative column modifiers apply (positive column modifiers apply normally). The exiting units may not fire.

Units may use Anti-Tank values in lieu of normal assault values for the "free shot" if so equipped.

12.13 Morale Restrictions

Disrupted units may NOT enter hexes containing enemy combat units, but may assault enemy units already present in the hex they occupy. Demoralized units may NOT enter an assault hex or assault units already present in a hex they occupy. They may defend against assaulting units at one-quarter of their normal direct fire strength. If demoralized units start their activation in an assault hex, they must try to recover morale. If they fail they must exit the hex (moving only one hex rather than their maximum movement rate), and may suffer a "free shot" from the enemy units there if no friendly units remain in the hex when they leave (12.12). If all adjacent hexes contain enemy units (other than unarmed, empty transports and leaders), the demoralized units are eliminated.

12.2 Required Combat

Assault combat must be resolved immediately when active units enter a hex containing enemy units and no friendly units. Resolve the assault after all active units which are to enter the assault hex this action segment have finished entering the hex. All units of both sides present in the hex must participate.

12.3 Voluntary Combat

If an activated unit enters a hex which was already occupied by friendly and enemy units at the start of the moving unit's action segment, or if the turn begins with both sides' units in an assault hex, then the active player may choose whether or not to attack with those units this turn. If he attacks, any units that moved into the hex this turn, plus any undemoralized friendly units and leaders that began the turn in the assault hex and have not activated this turn, may attack if desired. Not all units must attack. However, all enemy units in the hex defend as one combined strength.

12.4 Procedure

Each player totals the Direct Fire values of all his units in the hex (that are not firing Anti-Tank Fire, 12.52), applying any penalties due to disruption (14.2) and demoralization (14.3), and adding the combat bonuses of any eligible leaders present (6.42). Each player finds the column on the Assault Table whose value either equals or does not exceed his total modified direct fire value in the hex. Apply any column modifiers (there are no maximums or minimums). Then each player rolls two dice and cross-references the result with the column arrived at. Implement combat results simultaneously (Exception: First Fire, 12.43). Note that defending units do not have to activate to fire, and are not marked with a Moved/Fired marker at that time.

Armor gives no protection on the Assault Table, so foot units and vehicles without an Anti-Tank value can harm AFVs in assault combat.

12.41 Column Modifiers

Negative column modifiers for terrain only apply to the fire of whichever side is currently the attacker in the assault (the activated units). Therefore, if the Axis player activates units in an assault hex with town terrain, his units suffer the -2 column modifier when firing, but the defending Allied units do not. If in the following activation those same Allied units attack the remaining Axis units, then the Allied units now suffer the -2 column modifier.

Negative column modifiers for dug-in units (16.2) only benefit defending units which are actually dug in. Negative column modifiers for entrenchments only benefit defending units which occupied the entrenchments before the enemy units entered the hex. Negative modifiers can never result in a column less than 1 on the Assault Chart.

Consider only combat units (not leaders or unarmed transports) for column shift modifiers that involve morale status (for example, +1 if all enemy units are demoralized).

For the combined arms modifier that requires a side to include at least one undemoralized closed-top AFV and at least one infantry of any type except HMG (or WPN) units, the closed-top AFV must have BOTH an Anti-Tank AND either a Direct Fire or Bombardment Fire value to qualify. Other friendly units may also be in hex. This modifier only applies if the AFV has Armor Efficiency (11.2).

12.42 Minimum Strength

Each combat unit that has no direct fire factor (such as limbered artillery or mortars, but not unarmed transports) has an assault combat strength of 1. Leaders and unarmed transports have no assault strength, but leaders may add their combat modifier to the fire strength of any one unit in the hex (6.42), and add a +1 column modifier as well (6.43). If an unarmed transport (loaded or unloaded) finds itself in an assault hex alone with an enemy combat unit, it is eliminated (5.31).

12.43 First Fire

When conducting an assault against dug-in or entrenched enemy units, the defending units occupying those fortifications resolve their fire first. The attacker suffers any combat results obtained by the defender (step losses and morale checks) before he can attack. Only units that survive the defenders' first fire without becoming demoralized can attack; the demoralized units are done for this activation. If the hex contains defending units that receive first fire and units which do not, the defending player may choose to take First Fire with only the units able to first fire (the others don't fire), OR use all his units and resolve the assault simultaneously with the attacker. First Fire occurs every time dug-in or entrenched units defend, not just once.

Dug-in and entrenched units that attack in an assault hex do not receive their defensive bonuses (first fire and column shifts), but their "Dug In" markers are not removed and they retain entrenched status. They will again benefit from first fire and column shifts as defenders if the enemy assaults them in later activations.

If an AFV is defending against assault by foot units it will also qualify for First Fire if the AFV is not already engaged in assault, and both the attacker and the AFV began the turn in clear hexes. AFVs only get this first fire when the attackers first initiate the assault, not in subsequent rounds of assault once they occupy the same hex.

12.5 Restrictions
12.51 Leaders

Only leaders in an assault hex may influence units there. Leaders in adjacent hexes may not. Leaders in the assault hex may direct units in adjacent hexes to enter the assault hex, but may not influence them in any other way if they don't enter the assault hex.

12.52 Fire Types in an Assault Hex

Units in an assault hex may not fire on targets outside the hex. They may not fire on the direct fire or bombardment tables. They may conduct Anti-Tank Fire attacks, but only against enemy vehicles in the same hex with them (there is no dice roll modifier for this). Units in an assault hex may not conduct opportunity fire against enemy units entering the hex to initiate or reinforce an assault (exceptions: Cavalry Charge, 15.31; Extended Assault or Overrun, see Optional Rules).

12.53 Firing into an Assault Hex

Units outside an assault hex may not fire into it with Direct Fire. They may fire into it with Bombardment Fire, in which case the firing player rolls two attacks on the Bombardment Table - one against the enemy units there, and one against his own units. Calculate column modifiers separately for each attack; when determining the number of units in the hex, count only the combat units of the side being attacked. A player may fire into an assault hex with Anti-Tank Fire only if his side has no vehicles there.

12.54 Unit Types

Halve the Direct Fire values of HMG (or WPN) and anti-aircraft units that attack in an assault, unless at least one friendly infantry-type unit that is not an HMG (or WPN) also participates in the assault.

12.55 End of the Fight

Assaults end immediately when one side is eliminated or all of one side's units leave the hex.

12.56 Missing Enemy

If units(s) activate with a fire activation with the intent to assault a hex (noted at the time of activation) but other activities performed during the same activation (for example, Direct Fire by other units) vacate the target assault hex, the designated assaulting unit(s) have two options:

  1. enter the now vacant hex and end the activation, and that movement DOES NOT trigger opportunity fire (it's not "movement" but rather a fire action); or
  2. execute a fire attack against a valid target.
13.0 Opportunity Fire

Inactive units which have not yet activated this turn may use their Direct Fire, Anti-Tank Fire, and in limited cases (13.25) Bombardment Fire values to attack individual, spotted, moving enemy units within range. Each eligible unit using Direct or Bombardment Fire may conduct up to two Opportunity Fires per turn. Multiple stacked or adjacent units with an appropriate leader may combine their Direct or Bombardment Fire values normally against a moving unit (7.33). AFVs with Armor Efficiency (11.2) may conduct up to two Anti-Tank Opportunity Fires per turn. Other units with Anti-Tank Fire values may conduct one Anti-Tank Opportunity Fire per turn. Units which can take Opportunity Fire twice per turn do not have to target the same unit both times, and if they possess more than one of Direct, Bombardment, and Anti-Tank Fire values may use any one type of fire on each of the two Opportunity Fire attacks (for example, an Efficient tank unit could conduct one Opportunity Fire with Direct Fire, and another with Anti-Tank Fire).

13.1 Procedure

The inactive player designates the firing unit(s) during the target unit's movement. Resolve the attack using the Direct, Bombardment, or Anti-Tank Fire procedure. If a unit can conduct Opportunity Fire twice per turn (13.0), the firing player should place two Moved/Fired markers on it the first time it uses Opportunity Fire, and remove one of the markers the second time it uses Opportunity Fire. This indicates that it may not fire again or activate this turn. In the case of Anti-Tank Fire by units which can use Anti-Tank Fire only once per turn, place a Moved/Fired marker on the unit after it fires once to indicate that it can't fire again or activate this turn. Note: A unit that may conduct Opportunity Fire twice, that has already fired once, may NOT activate normally. It may only complete its second fire or pass.

13.11

A moving unit (and any leader moving with it) or leader moving without an accompanying unit may be attacked in any hex(es) within enemy range that it enters along its movement path. This includes fleeing units. During its movement, the inactive player must tell the moving player to stop moving it momentarily so that he can conduct Opportunity Fire. Fire must be resolved before the unit enters a new hex. The firing player may not wait to see where the unit will end its movement before announcing Opportunity Fire.

Example: Player A is moving a unit. He moves into the first hex, pauses, and asks if Player B will fire. If not, he moves into the next hex or takes another move action like unloading, and asks again. This continues until the unit's action is complete. Player B may not change his mind after Player A has begun the next move in the action.

13.12

The +1 column modifier against a hex containing three enemy combat units does not apply to Opportunity Fire, because only the individual moving unit is affected. For terrain modifiers, apply the modifier for the terrain being entered.

13.13

A moving unit forced to check morale by Opportunity Fire may be assisted by a good-order leader moving with it (6.3), or by a non-moving good-order leader who is in the same or an adjacent hex at the time the unit is forced to check morale. Leaders moving with the unit are affected normally along with the unit by any results.

13.14

A moving unit that fails a morale check (14.1) stops moving immediately and is marked Moved/Fired. A unit that passes a morale check, or that suffers a step loss (7.6) but passes a morale check may continue moving.

13.2 Restrictions
13.21

In a given action segment, a moving unit may only be attacked once in a particular hex by the same enemy unit. Multiple units may fire at the moving unit when it undertakes a move action (1.2), but each unit that could fire twice at the moving unit may not fire at it a second time unless and until it enters a new hex or takes a new move action within a hex. If it doesn't enter a new hex or take a new move action then they may take their second Opportunity Fire at another enemy unit that moves within range.

Example: A truck unit moves within range of two enemy infantry platoons occupying the same hex. In the first hex the truck unit enters, the infantry units may conduct opportunity fire against it (either as two individual attacks or one combined attack). The infantry units may not make a second Opportunity Fire attack on that truck unless it enters another spotted hex within range or tries to load or unload within its hex.

13.22

Multiple units may perform Opportunity Fire attacks in any order desired. Opportunity Fires are designated one at a time, allowing a player to see how one turns out before performing another.

13.23

Disrupted units conduct Opportunity Fire at half strength (14.2). Demoralized units may not conduct Opportunity Fire (14.3).

13.24

Opportunity Fire may not be conducted against units in assault hexes or entering an assault hex, though it can be used against units moving into a hex adjacent to the assault hex in order to conduct Cavalry Charge (15.31), Extended Assault or Overrun (see Optional Rules). Opportunity Fire also cannot be used against units that perform morale recovery (14.4), digging in (16.2), or forced unloading (5.66).

13.25

Unlimbered mortar units that possess a movement value greater than 0 (usually 1 or 2) and can spot the target themselves are the only bombardment units that may conduct Opportunity Fire. They use the Bombardment Table and applicable modifiers, but follow all the restrictions above.

13.3 Exceptions

Although it does not involve moving to a new hex, voluntary loading/unloading (5.61) and limbering/unlimbering (5.63) may trigger Opportunity Fire. Involuntary unloading (5.66) does not trigger Opportunity Fire.

14.0 Morale

All units and leaders have morale values. Each leader's morale value is printed on his playing piece – it's the big number in the center. Other units have one morale value when they're full-strength and another when they're at reduced- strength. These values are specified in the scenario instructions (the number before the slash is full-strength morale, the number after the slash is reduced strength morale).

14.1 Morale Checks

When a combat result requires a morale check, the owning player rolls two dice for each affected unit and/or leader and adds any applicable modifier to the result. For example, a combat result of M2 adds two to the result of the morale check dice roll. If the modified result is less than or equal to the unit's or leader's morale (as modified by leader bonuses), the morale check succeeds and the unit or leader is not affected. If the result is greater than the unit or leader's morale by one or two, it fails and becomes disrupted (14.2). If the result is greater than the unit or leader's morale by three or more, it fails and becomes demoralized (14.3). If a 12 is rolled on any morale check the unit or leader is automatically demoralized.

Example: Two French INF units plus a leader are forced to check morale (M, no additional penalty). The leader has a morale of 9 with a morale modifier of 1, and the INF units have a morale of 8. First, the French player rolls a 7 for the leader, who passes his morale check. He adds the leader's morale modifier of 1 to the morale of the INF units, giving them a morale of 9. He rolls a 10 for the first unit, meaning it is disrupted. He then rolls a 12 for the second unit. Since the unit failed by 3, it is demoralized, but is also automatically demoralized due to the roll of 12.

14.11 Compound Morale Failure

A leader or unit that is already disrupted and fails another morale check becomes demoralized. A demoralized leader or unit that is again demoralized (by failing another morale check by three or more) suffers a step loss if it is a unit, and is eliminated if it is a leader. There is no extra effect if a demoralized leader or unit fails a morale check by two or less.

14.12 "After you, Sir!"

Roll morale checks for leaders first, before units, in order of seniority. Leader morale failures apply immediately, so if a leader becomes demoralized he can't add his morale modifier to other units this segment

14.2 Disruption

A disrupted unit or leader:

  • Has all its combat strengths halved.
  • May move only one hex per turn.
  • Can't enter enemy-occupied hexes.
14.3 Demoralization

A demoralized unit or leader:

  • May not conduct any type of fire, except defending against assault. It does so at one-quarter its normal Direct Fire value.
  • Has its morale reduced by one.
  • Must attempt to recover morale (14.4) on its activation.
  • If it fails to recover, it must flee (14.31) from enemy combat units that can spot it, are within range to attack it, and are capable of obtaining a combat result against it through Direct or Anti-Tank Fire, including Assault (14.35; exception 14.33). For example, a demoralized AFV is not required to flee from an enemy INF unit unless they are in an assault hex together. Mark the unit as Moved/Fired once it finishes fleeing for the turn.
14.31 Fleeing

Each demoralized unit and/or leader that fails to recover must move away from enemy units that could hurt it. It must move toward the nearest (in terms of movement points) town, woods or other hex where enemy units can no longer spot it and fire on it with Direct or Anti-Tank Fire (whichever of the two types could hurt it). This is called a "safe hex." It must spend its entire movement allowance moving away from enemy units toward the closest safe hex (the owning player may choose between safe hexes that are equidistant in terms of movement points). It must attempt to reach the closest safe hex as soon as possible, subject to the restrictions above (always move away and move at maximum rate). Exception: A demoralized leader or unit in a hex containing an entrenchment is not required to flee, but may do so if desired. See also 14.35.

If a demoralized unit in an activated good-order leader's hex fails to recover and flees, the leader may, but is not required to, move with it and maintains his own good order. If the leader is disrupted, he must voluntarily become demoralized himself if he wants to flee with the demoralized unit. Change his marker from Disrupted to Demoralized and move him with the fleeing unit (6.53).

If the fleeing unit or leader cannot reach a safe hex on the first turn in which it flees, and if it fails to recover on future turns, then in subsequent activations it must keep fleeing at maximum movement rate toward the closest safe hex until it reaches it.

14.32 Going to Ground

Once a fleeing demoralized unit reaches a safe hex, it must stop moving and remain in the safe hex until it recovers. If enemy units move so that they can spot the demoralized unit and hit it with Anti-Tank or Direct Fire that could hurt it, and if the unit fails to recover when activated, then it must flee again to a new safe hex.

14.33

Fleeing demoralized units and leaders may only enter hexes farther away from enemy units capable of harming them with Anti-Tank or Direct Fire. If this is not possible, they may enter hexes at an equal distance from such enemy units. If this is also not possible, they must remain in place.

14.34

If a demoralized weapon unit with a movement allowance of 0 fails a recovery attempt AND it must flee, it is eliminated (the crew abandons the weapon).

14.35

Demoralized units in an assault hex that fail a morale check must exit the hex, and may move only one hex when doing so (12.13). On later activations they flee at their full movement rate if they fail to recover.

14.4 Recovery

Only a successful recovery attempt can repair the degraded morale status of a unit or leader. When players attempt to improve the morale status of their demoralized and disrupted units it is called "recovery." Units may recover with the assistance of an activated leader, or on their own. Units attempting recovery and leaders assisting them must be activated and may conduct no other action that turn. Place a Moved/Fired marker on any unit that attempts recovery (whether it is successful or not), and any leader who assists a recovery attempt.

A leader may not move in the same action segment in which he assists a recovery attempt, except to accompany a fleeing demoralized unit that fails to recover (6.53).

It is generally best to attempt recovery for disrupted leaders first, and then units, because a leader that recovers may then assist unit recovery in the same activation. Demoralized leaders do not have this option and use their whole activation to attempt to recover themselves.

14.41 Procedure

Determine the morale of units attempting recovery. Add the morale modifier of any one activated leader assisting the recovery attempt, plus any bonus for terrain or entrenchments (14.45), not to exceed the maximum (14.5). Roll two dice. On a result LESS THAN the unit's modified morale, it recovers. A demoralized unit that recovers becomes disrupted; a disrupted unit that recovers returns to good order.

14.42 Required Recovery

Every demoralized unit must attempt recovery at some point during the course of a turn (the owning player chooses when). Thus, a player may not "pass" if he has demoralized units that haven't activated this turn - they must try to recover.

14.43 Automatic Full Recovery

A demoralized unit or leader immediately returns to good order (skipping disruption) on an unmodified recovery result of 2.

14.44 Leader Desertion

A demoralized leader is immediately removed from play on an unmodified recovery result of 12. Decapitation (6.72) and catastrophic loss (6.73) apply if a senior leader deserts.

14.45 Recovery Bonuses

Add one to the morale of a unit or leader attempting recovery in an entrenchment or town hex, not to exceed the maximum (14.5). Transports receive this bonus in towns only.

14.5 Maximum Morale

For the purpose of making a morale check or recovery roll, no unit or leader may use an adjusted morale value greater than 10 due to any combination of bonuses or circumstances.

14.6 Surrender

Certain units listed in the special rules of some scenarios are subject to elimination through surrender. Surrender is triggered whenever an active, undemoralized enemy unit with Direct Fire values starts its activation adjacent to or in the same hex with one or more demoralized units that are subject to elimination through surrender. At that time, the inactive player must roll two dice, and if the result is greater than the current morale of his highest-morale unit in the subject hex, ALL units and leaders in the hex (whether demoralized or not) immediately surrender and are eliminated. If the result is equal to or lower than the morale of the unit with the greatest current morale in the subject hex, there is no surrender and the inactive units are unaffected.

The active units that forced the surrender dice roll can take all normal actions during their activation, whether the enemy units surrendered or not.

A leader in the hex may increase morale of units in the subject hex, but leaders in adjacent hexes may not. No unit can be forced to make more than one surrender check per turn.

15.0 Special Unit Types

Special unit types appear in some scenarios but not others. Use only the rules that apply to special unit types appearing in the scenario played.

15.1 Aircraft

Aircraft sometimes appear in scenario special rules, or through Random Events (see Optional Rules). Each aircraft piece is double-sided, and each side represents a different air unit. Aircraft fire values are printed on the pieces. All aircraft have Direct Fire values unless the piece or scenario instructions state otherwise; some have a special Anti-Tank value (11.4).

During a turn in which a player receives aircraft, he places all his side's aircraft pieces in an opaque container and randomly draws out the number of pieces specified in the scenario rules. He then flips the pieces drawn (like coins) to determine which side of each piece to use that turn.

15.11 Air Attack

Aircraft may potentially attack any hexes on the board as they have unlimited range. However, they are prohibited from attacking unspotted enemy pieces located in limiting terrain and all hidden units (see Optional Rules). Each aircraft may attack one hex per turn. The owning player selects the target hex and places one or more aircraft on it. Up to three aircraft may be placed on a single hex per segment for one activation. He then rolls one die for each aircraft. On a result of 1 or 2, the aircraft misses the hex, is removed from the board, and cannot attack this turn. On a result of 3 through 6 it attacks the hex. Ground units and off-board artillery may take no actions during an action segment in which air attacks are performed.

Aircraft were highly potent weapons for attacking AFVs. If an aircraft scores an X result on the Direct Fire table against a hex containing an open-top AFV, the firing player may choose to target that step loss to the open-top AFV (the player owning the AFV does not get to choose which unit in the hex takes the step loss as is normal (7.61)). If the aircraft scores a 2X or 3X result on the Direct Fire Table versus a hex, he may target one of those step losses to ANY AFV in the hex, not just an open-top AFV.

Some aircraft also have a special Anti-Tank attack (11.4).

15.12 Friendly Fire

If an aircraft misses the hex, use the bombardment friendly fire procedure (9.5) to determine if any adjacent friendly units are hit. Use the Bombardment table instead of the Direct Fire table in this case.

15.13 Damage

For each hex attacked by aircraft, total the fire values of all aircraft attacking the hex, apply all appropriate modifiers column modifiers, roll two dice and consult the Direct Fire table. Aircraft receive the +2 column shift for attacking adjacent units. Once the air attack is complete, remove the aircraft pieces from the board.

Some aircraft also have a special Anti-Tank attack ability indicated by a printed number on a black circle on the unit (11.4). An aircraft may execute one type of attack OR the other (Anti-Tank or Direct Fire), not both.

15.14 Anti-Aircraft (AA)

Apply a -1 column modifier to the air attack if at least one undemoralized, unlimbered enemy anti-aircraft unit is within three hexes of the target hex, even if it is marked Moved/Fired. Additional AA units do not add further modifiers. Aircraft never take losses from AA fire.

15.2 Armored Trains and Naval Vessels

Armored Trains and Naval Vessels all have leaders for movement purposes, but these leaders may not activate other units or spot for artillery. They are treated as AFVs for combat purposes and may be destroyed by anti-tank fire. Enemy units may assault (12.0) armored trains normally, but naval vessels may only be assaulted by enemy naval vessels. Enemy ground units (including engineers) may not enter a major river hex that contains a naval vessel.

Armored trains and naval vessels may move and fire in the same action segment, moving first and then firing. If they conduct opportunity fire, they may still move. Place three Moved/Fired markers on such units after they've conducted opportunity fire to show they can still move. Remove the extra two markers after the unit is done moving.

15.21 Armored Trains

An armored train may only enter railroad track hexes (as designated by scenario special rules). Its movement allowance is 6.

15.22 Naval Vessels

A naval vessel may only enter major river hexes and all water hexes. It has a movement allowance of 5, unless its playing piece states otherwise.

15.3 Cavalry
15.31 Cavalry Charge

Cavalry units activated by a Cavalry Leader may conduct assault movement (12.1) from two hexes away against a unit it can spot. The charge must follow the hex path used for spotting. This is a "cavalry charge," and gives the cavalry a +1 column shift on the assault table, although because it is an assault it is still a "fire" activation (3.13). If the cavalry begins its activation adjacent to the target enemy units, it may not charge. It may attack with whatever fire value it has, or conduct a normal assault.

Inactive units may conduct opportunity fire against charging cavalry in the first hex they enter, before they enter the assault hex. Units being charged may not do this if other enemy units are already in their hex at the time of the charge.

15.32 Horse Trailers

Cavalry may not be transported.

15.33 Equine Overrun

Cavalry may conduct Overruns if the optional rule is used.

15.4 Penal Units

Undemoralized penal units must always move closer to the nearest spotted enemy unit, moving their full movement allowance and following the shortest path in terms of cost in movement points. If no enemy units are spotted then they advance in the above manner toward the nearest enemy unit on the board or enemy board edge if no enemy are yet on the board and assault them until they are eliminated.

Demoralized penal units or disrupted penal units adjacent to an enemy must attempt to recover. This is the only situation where penal units are not required to move toward and assault enemy units. Penal troops may be aided by leaders and Kommissars as other troops.

Every penal unit must activate at some point during the course of a turn (owning player chooses when), subject only to the Fog of War dice roll (see Optional Rules) that can end a turn. Thus, a player may not "pass" if he has penal units that haven't activated this turn.

15.5 Flamethrowers

There are foot flamethrowers and AFV flamethrowers. The FLM engineer unit is armed with flamethrowers. It has a fire range of 0, which means the only type of combat it can attack in is assault combat (12.0). If an active, undemoralized FLM unit is assaulting one or more enemy units that would normally get First Fire (12.43), the presence of the FLM unit negates the First Fire and both sides fire simultaneously. Direct Fire (not Assault combat or Bombardment Fire) targeted at an FLM unit gets a special +1 column modifier due to exploding fuel tanks (7.52). The FLM is treated as a non-engineer unit when entering minefields (16.63), and cannot clear minefields (16.65). FLM units are treated as a normal ENG unit in all other respects.

In addition to its printed strengths, the AFV flamethrower receives a +3 column modifier (in addition to any others and not subject to the normal limits on modifiers) when involved in assault combat. After each assault combat the owning player rolls one die to determine if the flammable fluid is exhausted. On a result of 5 or 6 the unit no longer receives the +3 modifier. Such a unit may exit the map and replenish its supply. It must exit a friendly-controlled map edge however and remain off the map for six full turns. It can re-enter the map on the seventh turn and receive the modifier again. If an active, undemoralized flame AFV unit is assaulting one or more enemy units that would normally get First Fire (12.43), the presence of the flame AFV unit negates the First Fire and both sides fire simultaneously.

16.0 Special Rules
16.1 Strongpoints and Casements

Strongpoint or casemate pieces represent a prepared defensive position. Each strongpoint is a one-step unit with a zero movement allowance and cannot be transported. They have no armor value and can only be attacked by Direct Fire, Bombardment Fire, or Assault. The strongpoint gives no defensive benefit to other units occupying the same hex but is treated as if permanently dug in (16.2) for combat modifiers. Strongpoints that become demoralized and fail recovery are eliminated. Strongpoints do not count for stacking purposes or for the "three units stacked in one hex" column modifier. Strongpoints get the First Fire when defending against assault (other units in the same hex with them do not). Strongpoints are drawn and placed the same way as Minefield markers (16.6).

16.2 Digging In

Activated, undemoralized units and leaders may "dig in" at any hex except those designated as not allowed on the Terrain Effects Chart or in the scenario special rules. It takes two full action segments for a unit to dig in. Place a Moved/Fired marker on a unit during each segment that that it digs in. Digging in costs all of a unit's movement allowance and counts as its activation. Place a Dug In marker under the unit at the end of the first action segment and on top of it at the end of the second action segment of digging in. After a Dug In marker is placed on a unit, it gains all the benefits of being dug in (defensive column modifiers; First Fire in assault, 12.43). Leaders may either follow the same steps for units to dig in, or they may assume the dug in status of a unit with which they are stacked.

16.21

If, after the first segment of digging in but before the second, the unit or leader is interrupted by becoming demoralized or disrupted, firing on enemy units, participating in an assault as the attacker, or moving, the Dug In marker is removed. The two-turn process must begin anew in a future action segment.

16.22

The Dug In column modifiers apply only to those units in a target hex which are actually dug in. If the target hex contains both units which are and are not dug in, resolve the attack on two different columns per rule 7.52.

Note: Leaders are always considered dug in if any friendly units in their hex are dug in. However, a dug-in leader cannot transfer that status to units.

16.23

Cavalry and unarmed transports can't dig in, but APCs may do so.

16.24

Remove the Dug In marker from the map if all dug-in units exit the hex, unless a leader remains alone in the hex and chooses to stay dug in.

16.25

Dug In status is not transferable to other units. Each unit must dig itself in to gain the benefits.

16.26

A unit in appropriate terrain (see Terrain Effects Chart) is allowed to make attempts to dig in within an assault hex provided the unit is not interrupted by becoming demoralized or disrupted, or participates in the assault as the attacker (16.2, 16.21).

16.3 Wrecks

When an AFV step is eliminated in a bridge, road, or town hex, place a Wreck marker there.

16.31 Wreck Effects

Moving a vehicle into a hex with one wreck marker costs one additional MP. Two wrecks in a hex cost vehicles five additional MPs to enter. No vehicle may enter a hex with three wrecks. If assault casualties result in a vehicle occupying a hex with three wrecks it may not voluntarily move any further without clearing one of the wrecks; but it would flee normally (14.31).

16.32 Clearing a Wreck

An AFV unit with an armor value of 2 or more may clear one wreck. The AFV must spend two consecutive turns in the hex without moving or firing. The AFV must be in good order and activated each turn to clear the wreck; place a Moved/Fired marker on it each turn. If, after the first segment of wreck-clearing but before the second, the unit or leader is interrupted by becoming demoralized or disrupted, firing on enemy units, participating in an assault as the attacker, or moving, the two-turn process must begin anew in a future action segment.

16.4 Entrenchments

Entrenchment markers give units column modifiers against Direct and Bombardment Fire and give defending units First Fire in Assault combat (12.41, 12.43). Entrenchments are placed at the beginning of a game and may not be constructed during a scenario. See the Terrain Effects Chart for the table that defines all terrain where entrenchments may be placed.

16.41

Entrenchments are not removed if the occupying units leave the hex. New units of either side may occupy them and gain their defensive bonuses.

16.42

AFVs, cavalry and transport units may enter a hex with an Entrenchment marker, but receive no benefit from it.

16.5 Entering and Exiting the Board

Units may enter or exit the game board as directed by the scenario instructions.

16.51 Entering the Board

Units that enter the board during the course of a scenario should be set up off the edge of the map in stacks under normal stacking limits. When the units are scheduled to enter, group them around leaders in an extended line of "hexes" as though they were on the board, and activate them normally. Move them onto the board normally, counting hexes and expending MPs normally (use the clear terrain cost unless the units enter play at a hex where a road or trail exits the board; in that case use the road or trail MP cost).

For example: if six trucks were to enter the board through the same road hex, the first stack of three could enter paying 1/2 MP, while the second stack would pay one MP (1/2 MP to enter plus the 1/2 MP moving up while off-map. Similarly, the first stack moving off road would pay two MPs to enter the first clear hex while the second stack would pay four MPs, and so on.

Units entering the map may move directly into an assault hex that borders the map edge.

16.52 Exiting the Board

No unit may exit the board unless the scenario instructions permit. Units exiting the board may not re-enter play, but are not counted as destroyed unless the scenario instructions say otherwise. Those that would be forced to exit but cannot (like fleeing demoralized units in a scenario that doesn't allow units to exit) remain in the board-edge hex.

16.53 Not the Edge of the World

If all designated board-entry or -exit hexes are occupied by enemy units, the active player may enter/exit his units in other hexes that are adjacent to the enemy-occupied hexes. In this case, the turn of entry for the units is delayed by one turn.

16.6 Minefields

Some scenarios include minefields. Minefield markers can be one, two or three points in strength, or they may be decoys. Unless the scenario instructions state otherwise, a player whose side has minefields places all minefield pieces in an opaque container and randomly draws out the number of minefields the scenario allots him. He may then look at them to determine their strengths, and then places them face-down on the board in locations allowed by scenario instructions, leaving only the side not showing a number or "decoy" designation visible.

16.61 Effects

When a unit enters a hex containing one or more minefields, turn the markers to the numbered side. The owning player rolls a corresponding number of dice for each unit which entered the hex. On each result of 6 the unit loses a step, becomes demoralized, and must stop moving. On each result of 5 the unit becomes demoralized and must stop moving. On each result of 3 or 4 the unit must simply stop moving. On each result of 1 or 2 there is no effect. Stopped units may move out of the hex next turn (including fleeing if they don't recover from demoralization, 14.31).

16.62 Multiple Hits

Two or more results of 6 against a full-strength two-step unit eliminate it. Every two results of 5 against one unit cause one step loss due to compound demoralization (14.11).

16.63 Engineers

If an engineer (ENG) unit is among those units entering a minefield hex, or if an undemoralized ENG unit is already in a minefield hex entered by other units, then reduce the number of dice rolled against each unit by one. If the only unit(s) to enter the hex are ENG, reduce the number of dice rolled against each unit by two. If the number of dice rolled is reduced to zero due to ENGs present, units entering the minefield may ignore its effects.

16.64 Revealing Decoy Minefields

Decoy Minefield markers are removed when revealed.

16.65 Clearing Minefields

Remove one enemy minefield point from a hex if a friendly ENG unit remains there for three complete turns without interruption (see 16.21). If two ENG do this, remove two points every three turns. ENG may thus eliminate all minefields from a hex if they stay there long enough.

16.66 Leaders and Unarmed Transports

The owner of the minefield has the option to allow his minefield to activate against enemy leaders and unarmed transports. If he chooses not to activate it, the Minefield marker is not revealed and the transport or leader moves normally. If the minefield is activated, the leader is eliminated on a die result of 5 or 6, otherwise all procedures and results are followed normally.

16.67 Mines Have No Friends

Friendly units moving through a minefield are not affected by 16.61 but the terrain cost of the hex is increased by one MP, and the minefield modifiers for combat apply if units are fired upon or assaulted while in the hex. If a unit of either side is forced to flee into a minefield, it suffers the normal negative effects of 16.61.

16.71 Inside and Outside

Indicate if the unit is inside a cave by placing the unit underneath the Cave marker. Units in a cave hex may be inside the cave, outside, or a combination of the two, but stacking limits remain the same for such hexes.

16.7 Caves

A unit is either in a cave or outside of it. The scenario instructions may assign a player a number of Cave markers that are placed on the map prior to the start of the game and may not be moved. The rules may limit which side may occupy the inside of a cave.

16.72 Restrictions

No unit may use Direct or Bombardment Fire into or out of a cave. Therefore, units in a cave may only be attacked by assault (12.0), and the attacker suffers a -2 column modifier.

16.73 Driven Out

If during an assault one player suffers more casualties than he inflicts (morale changes don't count, only step losses), all his units and leaders must exit the cave hex completely just like normally exiting an assault hex, receiving the "free shot" as they exit (12.12). No unit may dig in while occupying a cave.

17.0 Optional Rules
17.01 Consolidation

A player may combine two reduced units of the same type, nationality and morale condition to form a single full-strength unit. Both units must start their activation in the same hex, be activated by a leader with the rank of Major or higher, and spend all their MPs to combine. Remove one of the units, flip the other to its full-strength side, and place a Moved/Fired marker on it.

17.02 Drumfire

If during any activation a given off-board artillery increment or on-board artillery unit fires Bombardment Fire at the same hex it bombarded on the previous turn (not including smoke or illumination), the firing player immediately places two Spotted markers in the target hex to indicate the presence of drumfire. Place an additional Spotted marker for each additional unit or increment that fires at the same hex on other activations. Resolve fire against the hex normally during the activation. In addition, resolve a new attack against any unit or leader (friendly or enemy) that moves into the drumfire hex during later activations of the current turn. Remove all Spotted markers indicating drumfire during the Marker Removal Phase.

Effects: All units and leaders that occupy a hex marked with two or more Spotted markers for drumfire are attacked using the usual bombardment procedure (just once; there's no extra attack for placement of the markers). They will not be attacked during any subsequent action phases of that turn unless they exit the hex and re-enter it. During action phases, drumfire only affects individual moving units and leaders that enter the hex; any non-moving units in the hex are not affected.

Each unit and leader (friendly or enemy) that enters a drumfire hex during any activation is immediately attacked by the artillery unit/increment that placed the Spotted markers there. Resolve the fire on the Bombardment Table against the moving unit or leader that entered the hex, but not against any non-moving units or leaders already in the hex. However, count any non-moving units in the hex toward the +1 modifier for three combat units stacked in the target hex.

The firing player may combine the strength of off-board artillery increments or on-board artillery units occupying the same or adjacent hexes that placed Spotted markers in the same drumfire hex, or they may resolve their fire separately. The firing player may not combine the strength of on-board units with that of the off-board increments; resolve their attacks separately.

Drumfire does not discriminate; all moving units and/or leaders of either side that enter the hex are attacked. If a moving unit or leader does not become disrupted or demoralized by drumfire, it may move out of the drumfire hex if it has sufficient MPs remaining to do so, or it may remain in the hex. A moving unit or leader that fails a morale check (14.1) caused by drumfire must stop moving immediately and remain in the hex. A moving two-step unit that suffers a step loss (7.6) but does not fail a morale check may continue moving. Demoralized units that are currently fleeing (14.31) due to failure to recover morale may not enter or move through any hex marked for drumfire. In addition, no drumfire hex can be used as a "safe hex" by demoralized units.

Restrictions: Artillery that fired Smoke or Illumination at a hex cannot count that attack for the two consecutive attacks for drumfire; all such attacks must use Bombardment Fire. If an on-board artillery unit firing drumfire is disrupted when firing or becomes disrupted later in the turn, its drumfire attacks are at half strength. If a unit firing drumfire is eliminated, becomes demoralized, or is assaulted during the current turn, immediately remove the Spotted markers indicating drumfire (no unit or leader entering the hex this turn is affected by it).

17.03 Efficient Unit Move & Fire

Instead of making two Anti-Tank Fire attacks, an efficient AFV may declare a move/fire or fire/move activation when activated. During that activation the unit may move up to half its printed movement allowance and fire once with a -1 modifier. It is then marked Moved/Fired. This option should be reserved for 1944 or later, or for units with a morale of 8/8 or better in scenarios taking place earlier than 1944.

17.04 Excess Initiative

If a player wins initiative (3.0) by enough to take three or more action segments before his or her opponent can take one, he may "save" one action segment and use it any time during the turn to perform two consecutive action segments; he need not designate ahead of time when that action will be taken. He may not use it to "interrupt" another player's turn. A player may use this saved action to perform an action after the turn is directed to end due to Fog of War dice roll.

17.05 Extended Assault

Similar to cavalry charge (15.31), an AFV unit activated by a tank leader (including loaded APCs, but excluding tanks with riders) may conduct extended assault from two or three hexes away. The AFV must have a LOS to the target from its starting position, and follow that LOS to the target assault hex. Inactive enemy units may conduct Opportunity Fire against an AFV performing an Extended Assault in any hex it enters before entering the assault hex. Units being assaulted may not undertake Opportunity Fire if other enemy units are already in their hex at the time of the Extended Assault. If an attacking APC includes loaded personnel, they may not voluntarily unload in the same activation as an Extended Assault; they may unload in subsequent activations.

17.06 Fog of War

After both players have conducted three activation segments each, then each player rolls three dice at the end of each of his subsequent activation segments. Add one to the result on night turns. If the total result for the three dice is 16 or more, the turn ends immediately for both players, and neither may take any further actions that turn (including recovering morale for unactivated demoralized units). Proceed to the next turn.

17.07 Formation Activation

When designated by the scenario instructions or mutual agreement of the players, a player may activate units by formation. The composition of the formation is chosen by the owner at the time of the attempt.

Conditions: To activate units by formation, ALL the following requirements must be fulfilled:

  • Have a morale of 7 or higher and a current initiative of 2 or higher;
  • The formation must include an undemoralized leader with a rank of Major or above;
  • All subordinate leaders in that formation must be undemoralized.
  • For ease of identification, consider turning units in such a formation 90 degrees to differentiate them in play from other units.

Procedure: The player rolls two dice. If the modified total is less than or equal to the senior leader's morale rating, the attempt succeeds and the formation is activated. Modify the dice roll result as follows:

  • +1 for every friendly leader eliminated
  • +1 for every friendly unit eliminated (trucks, wagons and prime movers don’t count; tanks do NOT count double)
  • +1 for every unit reduced to half strength in the formation
  • -1 if no unit in the formation has suffered a step loss
  • -1 for Australians, British, Finns, Gurkhas, Italian Blackshirts, Japanese, New Zealand, US Marines, Soviet Guards units after 1942, US Army after 1943 and Germans (all branches) before 1945.

If the attempt fails all formation leaders are considered Moved/Fired, but not the units.

Usage: If a player successfully activates a formation, he may move or fire some, all, or none of the units in that formation normally. However, all formation leaders and units are considered Moved/Fired at the end of the action phase even if they did not actually move or fire.

Added Benefit: Besides being able to use a larger force pool in one action segment, formation-activated units may combine fire from two adjacent hexes into a single fire calculation for Direct or Bombardment fire without a leader (rather than just one hex).

17.08 Hidden Units

Despite scenario specific rules in some games, the use of hidden units is always optional. For previously published scenarios involving hidden units, players may use the following rules, or ignore them and play with all units deployed on the map.

Plotting Position: Players write down the location of hidden units rather than placing them on the board. Spotting range for enemy units trying to locate hidden units is reduced to 1/4 normal range (round fractions down; minimum of one hex). Thus a hidden unit in clear terrain in daylight (normally spotted at 12 hexes) could only be spotted by a unit three or fewer hexes away, and a hidden unit in a town hex (normally spotted at three hexes) could only be spotted by an adjacent unit.

Revealing: A hidden unit loses its special status and must be placed on the board if an enemy unit is able to spot it, or if it moves or conducts any type of fire.

No Hidden Units Specified: For a scenario where no hidden forces are specified, if a side is allowed to dig in at the beginning of a scenario, then allow one-third of the forces and leaders to begin hidden, rounding fractions up.

Solo Play: When playing with hidden units, solo players can employ the following. Identify twice as many potential locations for hidden units as actual hidden units (so if you have 12 units, and normally 1/3 or four units would be hidden, then identify eight likely locations). Write down those hex locations on a piece of paper or mark them with Spotted markers (use fewer locations but the same number of markers if you want units to stack potentially). Place the hidden units and an equal number of Moved/Fired markers in a container (you may want to use separate containers for Anti-Tank units and Direct Fire units). When one of your moving units enters the LOS and range of one of the potential hidden locations, draw one or more pieces from the container (depending on how you envisioned the hidden units deploying). If it's a unit that can fire, use opportunity fire and place the revealed unit on the map. If not, discard the marker. In either case remove the Spotted marker from the map or scratch out that location from your list of locations. Revealed units operate normally thereafter.

17.09 Limited Intelligence

A player may not examine an opponent's stack (look under the top piece) unless the whole stack is adjacent to his own undisrupted/undemoralized unit or leader, or the stack is marked with a Spotted marker.

17.10 Logistics and Supply

Logistics Shortfall: If a player obtains a result of 3 or a 4 on his Fog of War dice roll at the end of any action segment, his side experiences a logistics shortfall. If, on a later game turn, the same player rolls another 3 or 4 on his Fog of War dice roll at the end of any action segment, his side experiences a critical logistics shortfall. Sides with a logistics shortfall or critical shortfall suffer the following effects for the remainder of the scenario (not just the remainder of the turn).

Shortfall Effects:

  • The player's Initiative is immediately reduced by one (subject to the minimum of zero (3.0).
  • All Mechanized or Motorized units have their movement allowance reduced by two.
  • Direct and Bombardment fire suffer a -1 column shift, and Anti-Tank Fire suffers a -1 dice roll modifier. There is no effect to Assault.

Critical Shortfall Effects: Every time a Mechanized and/or Motorized unit moves or fires, or a weapons unit fires, roll one die. On a result of 1 or 2 the unit runs out of fuel or ammunition and is removed from play after firing. All other units have their fire values halved for the remainder of the game. Units removed in this way do not count as lost for victory purposes, but do count against the initiative reduction (3.0).

Multi-Player Games: If using the multiplayer rules, only individual players who obtain a 3 or 4 on a Fog of War dice roll experience Logistics Shortfall, not the whole side.

17.11 Mire

Some terrain is so boggy or rough that vehicles or naval units attempting to cross it may become hopelessly caught without outside help.

Procedure: If a unit enters terrain designated by the TEC or scenario instructions as having mire potential, roll one die for the moving unit each time it enters such a hex. Unless otherwise specified, on a result of 1 through 3 for wheeled vehicles, or 1 or 2 for naval units or tracked vehicles, the unit may no longer move unless "freed" on a subsequent turn. Add one to the result for an amphibious vehicle in rice paddy/salt marsh, swamp, or water.

Place three Moved/Fired markers on the mired unit. In the marker removal phase remove one marker each turn until one remains. On the third marker removal phase make another mire die roll as above. If the result allows the unit to move, it may move normally next turn. If the unit is still not allowed to move, place another three Moved/Fired markers on the mired vehicle. Repeat the procedure as necessary.

Effects: Mired units have their armor rating reduced by one. Transports may unload while mired. Weapon units that unload must roll for mire, and if mired themselves, may not unlimber or limber. Units assaulting mired units receive a +1 column shift.

A mired unit may fire or attempt recovery but may not remove a Moved/Fired marker that turn if they do so.

Terrain Affected by Mire: Barbed Wire, Mangrove, Major River for Naval, Rice Paddy/Salt Marsh, Rocky, Sand Dune, Sandbar, Steep Slope, and Woods.

17.12 Multiplayer Games

Panzer Grenadier may be played by more than one player per side. There are two suggested ways to do this.

Sector Command: This is the preferred option for larger multiplayer games. At the start of the game, the players divide the board into sectors. Sectors can be divided board-by-board, or in any other manner agreed on. Each side then assigns a player to be commander for each sector. So, if Board 1 is Sector 1, then Sector 1 will have an Axis Sector Commander and an Allied Sector Commander.

Each turn, the opposing commanders in each sector play against each other, simultaneously with and independently of the other players. When all units in a given sector are done activating, the two sector commanders pause to see if all the other sector commanders are done activating too. When all units in all sectors are done activating, play proceeds to the next turn. This allows each turn of large multiplayer games to proceed quickly, without players waiting for others to finish actions.

Each sector commander controls all friendly units in his sector, and takes command of friendly units which enter his sector from another sector. Units may not fire at targets outside their own sector, except to initiate or join an assault. This keeps players from interfering with each other's actions. It also simulates limits to communications between sector commands in battlefield conditions.

Formation Command: This is the preferred method for smaller multiplayer games, or for players who wish to command specific units in battle. Divide all of each side's units and leaders among the side's players in any way desired. Each player will control only those leaders and units he has been assigned, and will control them no matter where they move on the board. Game play proceeds normally, with each side taking one action segment at a time, and the player controlling the activated units moving and fighting with them as he wishes. When a player activates his units, he may NOT activate the units of another player.

Commanding Officer: Before the start of play, roll a die to see which player on each side will be that side's Commanding Officer (CO). In Sector Command games, the CO is not represented by a leader piece on the board – the player himself is the CO. In Formation Command games, the player who wins the roll to be CO takes control of the highest-ranking leader on his side. If there is more than one leader of the highest rank on a side, designate one of the highest-ranked leaders as having seniority. At the start of each turn, the CO player may discuss battle plans with his sector commanders and give them high-level orders.

In Sector Command games, the CO can tell sector commanders to send their units to different sectors. Also, at the start of each turn he allocates air units and off-board artillery increments between his sector commanders. Each sector commander may use the air and artillery assigned to him that turn normally.

In Formation Command games, the CO player himself has control of off-board artillery and air units, and decides when and where to use them. He also decides which player gets to activate units in each friendly action segment.

CO Casualties: In Formation Command games, if the highest-ranking leader on a side is killed, the player with the next-highest-ranking surviving leader becomes the new CO. If there is a tie for seniority, the player who controls the most surviving combat unit steps is the new CO (roll a die to resolve ties).

17.13 Overrun

An Overrun is considered a "move activation." An AFV or cavalry unit (including loaded APCs, but excluding tanks with riders) must be activated by a tank or cavalry leader respectively, and may conduct Overrun from two or three hexes away only (they may not start adjacent to the target hex), and must have enough MPs to enter at least one pre-designated exit hex AFTER the assault hex (this exit hex must be free of enemy units and not prohibited to the units attempting Overrun). The AFV or cavalry must have a LOS to the target from its starting position, and follow that LOS to the target assault hex. Inactive opposing units may conduct Opportunity Fire against the AFVs or cavalry performing an overrun in any hex it enters before entering the assault hex. Overruns may NOT be conducted into existing assault hexes.

Once the overrunning AFV(s) or cavalry enter the target assault hex, conduct the assault normally except that both sides suffer an additional -1 column shift (or -1 to Anti-Tank Fire, except foot units using Special Anti-Tank Fire (11.5) which have their initial die roll adjusted by -1 instead). If the overrunning AFV or cavalry suffers demoralization it stops moving, is marked Moved/Fired, and the hex becomes a normal assault hex for future combats at the end of the action segment. If the overrunning unit suffers disruption it moves into the designated exit hex, stops moving, and is marked Moved/Fired. If it suffers any other result it moves into the designated exit hex and, if it still has remaining MPs, may continue moving normally.

17.14 Pre-Plotted Bombardment

Every on-board artillery unit that begins the scenario unlimbered, and every off-map artillery increment, may have one location pre-plotted prior to forces being deployed on the map. Players should record the desired hex for each such artillery unit or increment. The artillery may fire at that hex on any turn bombardment fire is allowed in lieu of other targets, regardless of spotting or visibility. Fire at pre-plotted hexes receives a +1 modifier to the friendly fire roll.

17.15 Random Events

Some games in this series include Random Events Tables. During the Initiative Determination Phase, if both players roll the same unmodified number on their initiative die roll, a random event may take place. Players roll again to see who wins initiative, and then each player rolls another die to determine the random event for the turn. Add the results together and consult the Random Events Table in the scenario book.

17.16 Recon by Fire

In situations where unspotted units are in range of artillery on the map, or in scenarios using Hidden Units, bombardment may be attempted against those hexes using the following procedure. The hex (not the units) must be spotted normally (8.0). Make the decision to combine fire or not normally (9.3). Once the firing units are chosen, roll one die for the attack. On a result of 1 or 2 the bombardment has no effect: mark the firing unit(s) Moved/Fired. On a result of 3 through 5 the hex is attacked at half the normal bombardment strength. On a result of 6 a full-strength bombardment attack is performed.

17.17 Ruins

In any segment where a player targets a town hex with a single Direct or Bombardment Fire attack with a strength of 30 or more, the firing player rolls one die after resolving the fire against the hex. On a result is 6, the town is considered a ruin. Place a Wreck marker on the hex to denote this status. A town hex may only be reduced to ruins once per game. A ruined town is treated as a normal town hex for all purposes except as follows:

  • Units entering the ruined town pay the following MP costs: Foot 2, Motorized P, and Mechanized 4.
  • Only one vehicle unit may occupy a ruined town hex, and if another Wreck marker is ever placed there then no vehicle units may enter that hex for the rest of the game unless the Wreck clearing procedure is used. Wreck clearing cannot remove the marker indicating the ruined town.
17.18 Smoke and Illumination

Unless forbidden by scenario special rules, all mortars, on-board artillery units and off-board artillery increments conducting bombardment attacks have a limited ability to fire smoke or illumination rounds instead of causing damage. A unit or off-board artillery increment firing smoke or illumination may not also conduct Bombardment or Direct fire in the same turn (place a Moved/Fired marker on it, or make a note if it's an off-board artillery increment). Illumination rounds are sometimes called star shells.

Limited Ammunition: Each side in a scenario has a number of turns of smoke equal to 10 percent of the turns in the game, with fractions rounded up. So a 12-turn game allows for two rounds of smoke/illumination, while a 36-turn game would allow four turns. To track usage, place either a Smoke or Illumination marker under the firing unit to indicate one usage, or note off-board artillery's usage on a piece of paper.

Procedure: For each unit or artillery increment firing, the active player designates a spotted target hex within range and rolls two dice. On a result of 5 or more the firing player places either a Smoke marker or an Illumination marker in the target hex. Subtract one from the result for 60mm (or smaller) mortars, and add one if the firing unit can spot the target hex.

Smoke Effects: Smoke markers block line of sight at any elevation. A hex with a Smoke marker in it becomes "limiting terrain" (8.2) and provides a -1 benefit to the occupant against Direct Fire or Anti-Tank Fire. However, any fire by a unit in the smoke hex incurs the same penalty (-1 to Direct Fire or Anti-Tank Fire).

Illumination Effects: Illumination markers create a lighted area in the target hex and the surrounding hexes as indicated. Units within the primary lighted area (within two hexes of the target hex as shown) are spotted using normal spotting rules rather than night spotting rules, with a range of eight hexes maximum. The secondary lighted area (shaded in diagram) follows the same rules but uses a spotting range of four hexes maximum. These distances are maximums and may be reduced by terrain or weather conditions.

Example: At night, a unit six hexes away that has an unobstructed line of sight to the target illumination hex could spot a target in the open there, and fire upon it if desired.

Dispersal: During the marker removal phase, remove all Smoke and Illumination markers from the board.

17.19 Strategic Movement

Units out of line of sight of enemy units may move at twice their normal movement allowance. Hidden units may attack such units with opportunity fire with a +2 Direct Fire or Bombardment Fire column modifier or a +2 Anti-Tank Fire dice roll modifier.

17.20 Tank Riders

A good-order personnel unit that does not have its own conveyance (like bicycles, motorcycles, or horses) PLUS up to three leaders may be transported on top of a good-order tank unit. A full-strength tank unit can transport one full- or reduced-strength personnel unit plus leaders, but a reduced-strength tank unit may only transport one reduced-strength personnel unit plus leaders.

The personnel unit and/or leaders must begin the action stacked with the tank unit, and both units expend all their movement points to load. To unload costs one-half the movement points of the tank and the riders (round any fraction up), any of which may continue moving if it has sufficient movement points remaining. Tanks with riders may not initiate an Assault (12.0) or Overrun, nor fire any weapons. Tank riders suffer all the limitations and penalties of 5.6 and 5.65, and have vulnerabilities as shown on the Direct Fire and Bombardment Fire Tables.

17.21 Variable Nighttime Spotting Range

Instead of rolling a die to determine for night visibility just at the beginning of a game (8.12), roll at the start of each turn to simulate clouds affecting moon and star light.